Far and away the most common mode by which a case reaches the Supreme Court is through an appeal from a decision rendered by a lower court. Appealed cases generally originate from lawsuits or criminal indictments filed and tried before the trial courts. These decisions of the trial courts may then be elevated on appeal to the Court of Appeals, or more rarely, directly to the Supreme Court if only “questions of law” are involved. Apart from decisions of the Court of Appeals, the Supreme Court may also directly review on appeal decisions rendered by the Sandiganbayan and the Court of Tax Appeals. Decisions rendered by administrative agencies are not directly appealable to the Supreme Court, they must be first challenged before the Court of Appeals. However, decisions of the Commission on Elections may be elevated directly for review to the Supreme Court, although the procedure is not, strictly speaking, in the nature of an appeal.
Review on appeal is not as a matter of right, but "of sound judicial discretion and will be granted only when there are special and important reasons therefor". In the exercise of appellate review, the Supreme Court may reverse the decision of lower courts upon a finding of an "error of law". The Court generally declines to engage in review the findings of fact made by the lower courts, although there are notable exceptions to this rule. The Court also refuses to entertain cases originally filed before it that should have been filed first with the trial courts.
Other articles related to "appellate review, appellate, review":
... by a Court-Martial is automatically reviewed by a military appellate court for each respective branch ... These courts are staffed by appellate military judges and function as an intermediate appellate court and have the power to review de novo both any questions of legal error and the ... This court has the power of discretionary review, in that it can in some cases deny a petition to grant a review ...
... issue with the Court's inferring a "reasonableness" standard of appellate review of sentences from the remainder of a statute from which it had excised the express statement that sentences ... When the Guidelines were enacted, appellate review was limited to discrete cases delineated by statute appellate review was not plenary ... According to the text of the statute, the "power to review a sentence for reasonableness arises only when the sentencing court has departed from the applicable guideline range." The situation ...
... the matter to arbitration the parties severely limited the scope of appellate review ... Court noted that parties who use this method of Arbitration severely limit the scope of appellate review, and that the decision of the Arbitrator is essentially "b ... have the best of both worlds, because they signed an agreement allowing for full appellate review of the arbitrator's decision, but also providing for confidentiality of the proceedings ...
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