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Excessive exposure to direct sunlight is potentially harmful. Excessive exposure can result in sunburn if a person does not wear sun protective clothing or use suitable sunscreen. Products with a higher SPF (Sun Protection Factor) level provide greater protection against ultraviolet radiation. However, in 1998, the Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science reported that some sunscreens advertising UVA and UVB protection do not provide adequate safety from UVA radiation and could give sun tanners a false sense of protection. A sunscreen should also be hypoallergenic and noncomedogenic so it does not cause a rash or clog the pores, which can cause acne.
For those choosing to tan, some dermatologists recommend the following preventative measures:
- Sunscreens that should block both UVA and UVB rays are called broad-spectrum sunscreens.
- Sunscreens need to be applied thickly enough to get the full SPF protection.
- Sunscreens should be applied 15 to 30 minutes before exposure, followed by one reapplication 15 to 30 minutes after the sun exposure begins. Further reapplication is necessary only after activities such as swimming, sweating, and rubbing.
- Sun rays are strongest between 10 am and 4 pm. Sun rays are stronger at higher elevations (mountains) and latitudes near the equator.
- Wearing a hat with a brim and anti-UV sunglasses can provide almost 100% protection against ultraviolet radiation's entering the eyes.
- Reflective surfaces like snow and water can greatly increase the amount of UV radiation to which the skin is exposed.
Recent evidence indicates that caffeine and caffeine sodium benzoate increase UVB-induced apoptosis both in topical and oral applications. In mice, UVB-induced hyperplasia was greatly reduced with administration of these substances. Although studies in humans remain untested, caffeine and caffeine sodium benzoate may be novel inhibitors of skin cancer.
Read more about this topic: Sunscreen
Famous quotes containing the word application:
“The application requisite to the duties of the office I hold [governor of Virginia] is so excessive, and the execution of them after all so imperfect, that I have determined to retire from it at the close of the present campaign.”
—Thomas Jefferson (17431826)
“My business is stanching blood and feeding fainting men; my post the open field between the bullet and the hospital. I sometimes discuss the application of a compress or a wisp of hay under a broken limb, but not the bearing and merits of a political movement. I make gruelnot speeches; I write letters home for wounded soldiers, not political addresses.”
—Clara Barton (18211912)
“May my application so close
To so endless a repetition
Not make me tired and morose
And resentful of mans condition.”
—Robert Frost (18741963)