The texts are inconclusive as to which languages can be used G.3.93, this says that stipulation is valid in Greek, providing the other party understands it. The reference only to Greek may have been simply because this was the only other language parties could speak.
D.45.1.16 says that if the question is in Latin and the reply is in Greek, the obligation is settled providing the two correspond. This seems to suggest that there was not a closed list of words. Importantly, it then goes on to say that other languages can only produce an obligation, not an action. However, the examples given are all of dead languages – which may be significant (it may be that other languages could have been used.) An obligation is only produced where both parties understand each other, but this may be through an interpreter. The last clause suggests that the text may have been interpolated, as the use of an interpreter seems unlikely as it would be highly problematic because the interpretator might lie as to what was being said.
Read more about this topic: Stipulatio
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