Silverthrone Caldera - Volcanic Hazards - Volcanic Gas

Volcanic Gas

Volcanic gas includes a variety of substances. These include gases trapped in cavities (vesicles) in volcanic rocks, dissolved or dissociated gases in magma and lava, or gases emanating directly from lava or indirectly through ground water heated by volcanic action. The volcanic gases that pose the greatest potential hazard to people, animals, agriculture, and property are sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen fluoride. Locally, sulfur dioxide gas can lead to acid rain and air pollution downwind from the volcano. Globally, large explosive eruptions that inject a tremendous volume of sulfur aerosols into the stratosphere can lead to lower surface temperatures and promote weakening of the Earth's ozone layer. Because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, the gas may flow into in low-lying areas and collect in the soil. The concentration of carbon dioxide gas in these areas can be lethal to people, animals, and vegetation.

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Volcanic Gas - Hazards
... Volcanic gases were directly responsible for approximately 3% of all volcano-related deaths of humans between 1900 and 1986 ... Some volcanic gases kill by acidic corrosion others kill by asphyxiation ... The greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, is emitted from volcanoes, accounting for nearly 1% of the annual global total ...

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