Semantic role labeling, sometimes also called shallow semantic parsing, is a task in natural language processing consisting of the detection of the semantic arguments associated with the predicate or verb of a sentence and their classification into their specific roles. For example, given a sentence like "Mary sold the book to John", the task would be to recognize the verb "to sell" as representing the predicate, "Mary" as representing the seller (agent), "the book" as representing the goods (theme), and "John" as representing the recipient. This is an important step towards making sense of the meaning of a sentence. A semantic representation of this sort is at a higher-level of abstraction than a syntax tree. For instance, the sentence "The book was sold by Mary to John" has a different syntactic form, but the same semantic roles.
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