Scottish Monarchy - List of Monarchs of Scotland - House of Stewart/Stuart - Stuart (1567–1651)

Stuart (1567–1651)

The Stewarts of Lennox were a junior branch of the Stewart family; they were not, however, direct male line descendants of Robert II, the first Stewart who became King of Scots, but rather that of his ancestor Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland. In the past, through the means of the Auld Alliance with France, they had adapted their surname to the French form, Stuart. Consequently, when the son of the Earl of Lennox, Henry, Lord Darnley, married the Queen of Scots, Mary I, their son, as the first King of the Lennox branch of the Stewart family, ruled as a Stuart.

James VI also became King of England and Ireland as James I in 1603, when his cousin Elizabeth I died; thereafter, although the two crowns of England and Scotland remained separate, the monarchy was based chiefly in England.

Charles I, James's son, found himself faced with Civil War; the resultant conflict lasted eight years, and ended in his execution. The English Parliament then decreed their monarchy to be at an end; the Scots Parliament, after some deliberation, broke their links with England, and declared that Charles II, son and heir of Charles I, would become King. He ruled until 1651; however, the armies of Oliver Cromwell occupied Scotland and drove him into exile.

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death Dynastic status
James VI

1567–1625
19 June 1566
Edinburgh Castle
son of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and Mary I
Anne of Denmark
Old Bishop's Palace, Oslo, Norway
23 November 1589
seven children
27 March 1625
Theobalds House, Hertfordshire, England
aged 58
son of Mary I (primogeniture)
Charles I

1625–1649
19 November 1600
Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline
son of James VI and Anne of Denmark
Henrietta Maria of France
St Augustine's Church, Canterbury, England
13 June 1625
nine children
30 January 1649
Palace of Whitehall, London, England
aged 48 (executed)
son of James VI (primogeniture)
Charles II

1649–1651
29 May 1630
St James's Palace, London, England
son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France
Catherine of Braganza
Portsmouth, England
14 May 1662
no children
6 February 1685
Palace of Whitehall, London, England
aged 54
son of Charles I (primogeniture)

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Famous quotes containing the word stuart:

    ... while I may paint in the tints or outlines of rocks and beaches, dawns and harbor, fleet and wharf, I never draw portraits of my neighbors or of my friends.
    —Elizabeth Stuart Phelps (1844–1911)