In his paper, "Elephants Don't Play Chess.", Brooks argued that interacting with the physical world is far more difficult than symbolically reasoning about it. Symbolic computational approaches to creating intelligent machines had long been the focus of AI since the days of Alan Turing, directly tracing back to the work of Gottlob Frege. Brooks focused instead on biologically-inspired robotic architectures (e.g., the subsumption architecture) that address basic perceptual and sensorimotor tasks.
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