**Worked Example**

Example 1: risk reduction | Example 2: risk increase | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Experimental group (E) | Control group (C) | Total | (E) | (C) | Total | |

Events (E) | EE = 15 | CE = 100 | 115 | EE = 75 | CE = 100 | 175 |

Non-events (N) | EN = 135 | CN = 150 | 285 | EN = 75 | CN = 150 | 225 |

Total subjects (S) | ES = EE + EN = 150 | CS = CE + CN = 250 | 400 | ES = 150 | CS = 250 | 400 |

Event rate (ER) | EER = EE / ES = 0.1, or 10% | CER = CE / CS = 0.4, or 40% | EER = 0.5 (50%) | CER = 0.4 (40%) |

Equation | Variable | Abbr. | Example 1 | Example 2 |
---|---|---|---|---|

CER − EER | < 0: absolute risk reduction | ARR | (−)0.3, or (−)30% | N/A |

> 0: absolute risk increase | ARI | N/A | 0.1, or 10% | |

(CER − EER) / CER | < 0: relative risk reduction |
RRR | (−)0.75, or (−)75% | N/A |

> 0: relative risk increase | RRI | N/A | 0.25, or 25% | |

1 / (CER − EER) | < 0: number needed to treat | NNT | (−)3.33 | N/A |

> 0: number needed to harm | NNH | N/A | 10 | |

EER / CER | relative risk | RR | 0.25 | 1.25 |

(EE / EN) / (CE / CN) | odds ratio | OR | 0.167 | 1.5 |

EER − CER | attributable risk | AR | (−)0.30, or (−)30% | 0.1, or 10% |

(RR − 1) / RR | attributable risk percent | ARP | N/A | 20% |

1 − RR (or 1 − OR) | preventive fraction | PF | 0.75, or 75% | N/A |

Read more about this topic: Relative Risk Reduction

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