Primary Hyperparathyroidism - Signs and Symptoms

Signs and Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of primary hyperparathyroidism are those of hypercalcemia. They are classically summarized by the mnemonic "stones, bones, abdominal groans and psychiatric moans".

  • "Stones" refers to kidney stones, nephrocalcinosis, and diabetes insipidus (polyuria and polydipsia). These can ultimately lead to renal failure.
  • "Bones" refers to bone-related complications. The classic bone disease in hyperparathyroidism is osteitis fibrosa cystica, which results in pain and sometimes pathological fractures. Other bone diseases associated with hyperparathyroidism are osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and arthritis.
  • "Abdominal groans" refers to gastrointestinal symptoms of constipation, indigestion, nausea and vomiting. Hypercalcemia can lead to peptic ulcers and acute pancreatitis. The peptic ulcers can be an effect of increased gastric acid secretion by hypercalcemia, but may also be part of a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome of both hyperparathyroid neoplasia and a gastrinoma.
  • "Psychiatric moans" refers to effects on the central nervous system. Symptoms include lethargy, fatigue, depression, memory loss, psychosis, ataxia, delirium, and coma.
  • Left ventricular hypertrophy.
  • Increased all-cause mortality

The German description of the same symptoms is "Stein-, Bein- und Magenpein", literally "stone, bone, and stomach-pain".

Other signs include proximal muscle weakness, itching, and band keratopathy of the eyes.

When subjected to formal research, symptoms of depression, pain, and gastric dysfunction seem to correlate with mild cases of hypercalcemia.

Read more about this topic:  Primary Hyperparathyroidism

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