Powys Fadog

Powys Fadog or Lower Powys was the northern portion of the former princely realm of Powys which split in two following the death of Madog ap Maredudd of Powys in 1160. The realm was divided under Welsh Law, with Madog's nephew Owain Cyfeiliog inheriting the south (see Powys Wenwynwyn) and his son Gruffydd Maelor I who inherited the north.

Gruffydd I received the cantrefi of Maelor and Iâl as his portion and later added Nanheudwy, Cynllaith, Glyndyfrdwy and Lower Mochnant. This northern realm became known as Powys Fadog after the accession of his son Madog I ap Gruffydd in 1191 who reigned until 1236. During his reign he initially adopted a neutral position between Gwynedd and England but by 1215 had settled on an alliance with Llywelyn ab Iorwerth (Llywelyn II of Gwynedd). This policy of alliance with Gwynedd continued under his successor Gruffydd II over his thirty-three year reign. This alliance was formalised when Powys Fadog became vassal of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, (Llywelyn III of Gwynedd), in his role as Prince of Wales under the terms of the Treaty of Montgomery in 1267.

When Gruffydd II eventually died in 1269 his eldest son Madog II succeeded to the throne but the small portion of the realm awarded to his younger brothers caused rebellion in which England became malevolently engaged. By 1276 Powys Fadog was in disorder with brother fighting brother and this conflagation soon became a small part in the campaign being waged the English Crown against the fragile Welsh confederation.

In early 1277 an army led by the Earl of Warwick with support from the treacherous brother of Llywelyn (of Gwynedd), Dafydd ap Gruffydd, marched from Chester into Powys Fadog. Madog II was compelled to submit and under the terms of his surrender the realm would be divided between himself and his younger brother Llywelyn. The royal centre at Dinas Bran, widely considered the strongest native castle in all Wales, was to be had by neither and dismantled.

It appears that Madog II (or at least men loyal to him) remained at Dinas Bran for some time after this accord because the Earl of Lincoln commanded an English force to take the castle on the 10th May 1277. Before they could complete their encirclement of the royal centre they learnt that the small garrison inside had abandoned the cause and burnt the castle. Madog II was forced to flee to the protection of Gwynedd. He was killed in battle while campaigning alongside Llywelyn of Gwynedd later that same year. The castle of Dinas Bran would be reduced, the dramatic ruins of which may still be seen today.

His surviving brothers Llywelyn and Gruffydd Fychan accepted the overlordship of England and the realm was divided between them. Special provision was also made for the two sons of Madog II. However, in 1282, during the final campaign of Prince Llywelyn of Wales, all of the rulers of Powys Fadog would once again turn against England in a final conflict during which Llywelyn of Wales (and Gwynedd), Llywelyn of Powys Fadog and the two sons of Madog II would die.

Under the terms of the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284 all of the remaining former princely titles and territories in Wales were abolished. Gruffydd Fychan (the brother of Madog II and last heir to the throne of Powys Fadog) was pardoned but reduced in status to that of a minor local noble or uchelwyr. His direct descendant, Owain Glyndŵr, would become the leader of a later Welsh rebellion in 1400.

The territory of Powys Fadog was broken up into a series of lordships based on the former cantrefi. Under the Laws of Wales Acts these marcher lordships were merged with other adjacent lands formerly part of Gwynedd and incorporated into new administrative counties; the cantrefi of Maelor, Nanheudwy, Iâl, Cynllaith and Lower Mochnant going to Denbighshire and Maelor Saesneg forming the Wrexham exclave of Flintshire. This situation was maintained until the re-organisation of local government in Wales in 1974.

Read more about Powys Fadog:  Princes of Powys Fadog and Later Lords of Glyn Dyfrdwy, Progeny of The Princely House

Other articles related to "powys, powys fadog, fadog":

List Of Anglo-Welsh Wars - Thirteenth Century
... of Wales in 1258 and establishing his authority in Powys and Deheubarth ... and purposes, acknowledged as prince of Wales by the noblemen of Powys and Deheubarth ... Gwynedd and her allies in Deheubarth and Powys Fadog make few gains in mid-Wales however, Mold is recaptured by the Welsh (28 Mar) ...
Castell Dinas Bran - Medieval History
... Dinas Brân is in what was once the ancient Kingdom of Powys ... The last Prince of Powys Gruffydd Maelor died in 1191 and the kingdom was divided into Powys Fadog in the north and Powys Wenwynwyn in the south ... His son, Madog ap Gruffydd Maelor was lord of Powys Fadog and founded the nearby Valle Crucis Abbey ...
Powys Fadog - Progeny of The Princely House
... Direct patrilineal descendants of Owain Brogyntyn (fl. 1180) the youngest son of Madog ap Maredudd were the hereditary lords of Edeirnion who during the 12th and 13th Centuries usually ruled as subjects of the prince of Gwynedd whose homage was bought by the princes of Powys-Fadog ...
Madog Ap Gruffydd Maelor - Consolidation
... Maelor, and the territory he ruled became known as Powys Fadog in his honour ... (Fadog is a gender mutation of his name, Madog) ... comprising Welsh and English Maelor, Ial, Cynllaith, Nanheudwy and part of Mochnant formed Powys Fadog, as opposed to Powys Wenwynwyn and was still referred to as Powys Fadog ...

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