Polygyny Costs

Some articles on cost, polygyny, costs:

Polygyny Threshold Model - Costs of Polygyny
... Searcy and Ken Yasukawa, the term cost of polygyny is defined as the net costs of polygyny after the summation of all of the component costs and benefits ... Costs include less parental care and increased competition between females for the male’s provision and food among other resources ... the distance between curve 1 (monogamous line) and curve 2 (bigamous line) of the polygyny threshold model graph (see above) to be the cost of polygyny ...

Famous quotes containing the word costs:

    It is commonly said by farmers, that a good pear or apple costs no more time or pains to rear, than a poor one; so I would have no work of art, no speech, or action, or thought, or friend, but the best.
    Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882)