Political Repression In The People's Republic Of China
The recognition and protection of human rights in the People's Republic of China (also known as China or The PRC) are a matter of dispute. PRC authorities, their supporters, and other proponents claim that existing policies and enforcement measures are sufficient to guard against human rights abuses, whereas other countries and their authorities (i.e. United States Department of State, Canada, India, etc.), alongside international Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) (i.e. Human Rights in China, Amnesty International, etc.), and dissidents inside the country state that the authorities in Mainland China regularly sanction or create such abuses. In 2012, there were 12 outstanding requests for official visits to China by UN Special Rapporteurs on various human rights issues.
NGOs such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, alongside foreign governmental institutions such as the U.S. State Department, have accused the PRC of violating the freedoms of speech, movement, and religion of its citizens and of others within its jurisdiction. Authorities in the PRC believe in a "wider" definition of human rights, to include economic and social as well as political rights, all in relation to "national culture" and the level of development of the country. As per this definition, Authorities in the PRC claim that human rights are being improved, although this is not the definition utillised by most countries and organisations. Politicians of the PRC have repeatedly maintained that as per the PRC Constitution, the "Four Cardinal Principles" supersede citizenship rights, which PRC officials interpret as a legal basis to arrest people whom the government says seek to overthrow these principles. Chinese nationals whom authorities perceive to be in compliance with these principles are thus permitted by the PRC authorities to enjoy and exercise all the rights that come with citizenship of the PRC, provided they do not violate PRC laws in any other manner.
However, numerous human rights groups have pointed out which human rights issues they consider the government to be mishandling. The more publicised human rights issues in China are, or are related to, policies such as death penalty (capital punishment), the one-child policy, the political and legal status of Tibet, and neglect of freedom of press in Mainland China. One of the foremost areas of concern is the lack of legal recognition of human rights, the want of an independent judiciary, rule of law, and due process. Another area of concern is the severe lack of rights of labourers, closely related to the hukou system restricting migrant labourers' freedom of movement, the absence of independent labour unions, and allegations of discrimination against rural workers and ethnic minorities. Yet another area of concern is the lack of religious freedom, highlighted by the repression of the Christian, Tibetan Buddhist, and Falun Gong religious groups. Some Chinese activist groups are trying to expand these freedoms, including Human Rights in China, Chinese Human Rights Defenders, and the China Human Rights Lawyers Concern Group.
Read more about Political Repression In The People's Republic Of China: Legal System, Prisons, One-child Policy, Executions (Death Penalty/Capital Punishment), Torture, Political Abuse of Psychiatry, Ethnic Minorities, Tibetans, Economic and Property Rights, Other Human Rights Issues, Position of The PRC Government, See Also
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