Plant Respiration - Aerobic Respiration - Citric Acid Cycle

Citric Acid Cycle

This is also called the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle. When oxygen is present, acetyl-CoA is produced from the pyruvate molecules created from glycolysis. When oxygen is present, the mitochondria will undergo aerobic respiration which leads to the Krebs cycle. However, if oxygen is not present, fermentation of the pyruvate molecule will occur. In the presence of oxygen, when acetyl-CoA is produced, the molecule then enters the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) inside the mitochondrial matrix, and gets oxidized to CO2 while at the same time reducing NAD to NADH. NADH can be used by the electron transport chain to create further ATP as part of oxidative phosphorylation. To fully oxidize the equivalent of one glucose molecule, two acetyl-CoA must be metabolized by the Krebs cycle. Two waste products, H2O and CO2, are created during this cycle.

The citric acid cycle is an 8-step process involving different enzymes and co-enzymes. Throughout the entire cycle, acetyl-CoA(2 carbons) + Oxaloacetate(4 carbons). Citrate(6 carbons) is rearranged to a more reactive form called Isocitrate(6 carbons). Isocitrate(6 carbons) modifies to become α-Ketoglutarate(5 carbons), Succinyl-CoA, Succinate, Fumarate, Malate, and finally, Oxaloacetate. The net energy gain from one cycle is 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, and 1 GTP; the GTP may subsequently be used to produce ATP. Thus, the total energy yield from one whole glucose molecule (2 pyruvate molecules) is 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, and 2 ATP.

Read more about this topic:  Plant Respiration, Aerobic Respiration

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