Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection

A Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection is a congenital defect where the right atrium is the point of return for the blood from some (but not all) of the pulmonary veins.

It is less severe than total anomalous pulmonary venous connection which is a life-threatening anomaly requiring emergent surgical correction, usually diagnosed in the first few days of life. Partial anomalous venous connection may be diagnosed at any time from birth to old age. The severity of symptoms, and thus the likelihood of diagnosis, varies significantly depending on the amount of blood flow through the anomalous connections. In less severe cases, with smaller amounts of blood flow, diagnosis may be delayed until adulthood, when it can be confused with other causes of pulmonary hypertension. There is also evidence that a significant number of mild cases are never diagnosed, or diagnosed incidentally. It is associated with other vascular anomalies, and some genetic syndromes such as monosomy X.

It can be diagnosed with CT scan, angiography, transesophageal echocardiography, or cardiac MRI. Unfortunately, less invasive and expensive testing, such as transthoracic echocardiography and CT scanning are generally less sensitive.

It is sometimes treated with surgery. However, interest is increasing in catheter-based interventional approaches, as well as medical therapy for less severe cases.

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