Papal Orders of Chivalry are awarded in the name of the Pope, by his authority as Head of the Catholic Church and as the head of state of the Holy See. Historically, membership in these orders was conferred by papal bulls, which were not signed by the Pope, or by Apostolic Letters, which were signed by the Pope himself. Since the reforms made in the structure of these orders at the beginning of the 20th century, the diplomas have been signed by the Cardinal Secretary of State, a post held since 15 September 2006 by Tarcisio Bertone.
Papal Orders may be divided into two main categories. The first category includes those orders awarded directly by the Supreme Pontiff as head of the Catholic Church and the Holy See. These are generally called the Papal Orders. The second category is Orders of Chivalry directly under papal protection. Contemporary orders in this category include the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Malta, the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulcher, and the Teutonic Order. These orders are issued under the protection of the Pope as Supreme Pontiff, but they are not considered to be awards of the Vatican state.
Other articles related to "papal orders of chivalry, order, chivalry":
... The Teutonic Order was founded as a hospital brotherhood in 1190 at Acre ... In 1198 the order became a religious military order of chivalry ... Since 1929, it has been a purely religious order of priests, brothers, and sisters, with a category of twelve honorary knights and an unlimited number of ...
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“I thought ten thousand swords must have leaped from their scabbards to avenge even a look that threatened her with insult. But the age of chivalry is gone. That of sophisters, economists and calculators has succeeded; and the glory of Europe is extinguished forever.”
—Edmund Burke (17291797)
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