Operation Passage To Freedom

Operation Passage to Freedom was the term used by the United States Navy to describe its transportation in 1954–55 of 310,000 Vietnamese civilians, soldiers and non-Vietnamese members of the French Army from communist North Vietnam (the Democratic Republic of Vietnam) to South Vietnam (the State of Vietnam, later to become the Republic of Vietnam). The French military transported a further 500,000. In the wake of the French defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, the Geneva Accords of 1954 decided the fate of French Indochina after eight years of war between French Union forces and the Viet Minh, which sought Vietnamese independence. The accords resulted in the partition of Vietnam at the 17th parallel north, with Ho Chi Minh's communist Viet Minh in control of the north and the French-backed State of Vietnam in the south. The agreements allowed a 300-day period of grace, ending on May 18, 1955, in which people could move freely between the two Vietnams before the border was sealed. The partition was intended to be temporary, pending elections in 1956 to reunify the country under a national government. Between 600,000 and one million northerners moved south, while between 14,000 and 45,000 civilians and approximately 100,000 Viet Minh fighters moved in the opposite direction.

The mass emigration of northerners was facilitated primarily by the French Air Force and Navy. American naval vessels supplemented the French in evacuating northerners to Saigon, the southern capital. The operation was accompanied by a large humanitarian relief effort, bankrolled in the main by the United States government in an attempt to absorb a large tent city of refugees that had sprung up outside Saigon. For the US, the migration was a public relations coup, generating wide coverage of the flight of Vietnamese from the perceived oppression of communism to the "free world" in the southern dictatorship under American auspices. The period was marked by a Central Intelligence Agency-backed propaganda campaign on behalf of South Vietnam's Roman Catholic Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem. The campaign exhorted Catholics to flee impending religious persecution under communism, and around 60% of the north's 1 million Catholics obliged.

The migration boosted the Catholic power base of Diem; whereas the majority of Vietnam's Catholics previously lived in the north, they were now in the south. The campaign was intended to strengthen the population of the south in preparation for the reunification elections. Fearing a communist victory, Diem cancelled the elections. Believing the northern Catholics to be a bastion of solid anti-communist support, Diem proceeded to treat his new constituents as a special interest group. In the long run, the northern Catholics never fully integrated into southern society and Diem's favoritism toward them caused tension that culminated in the Buddhist crisis of 1963, which ended with the downfall and assassination of the South Vietnamese leader.

Read more about Operation Passage To Freedom:  Background, Evacuation, Propaganda Campaign, Communist Prevention of Emigration, Media and Public Relations, Social Integration, Difficulties and Criticism

Other articles related to "operation passage to freedom, operations, operation, passage to freedom":

USS Aludra (AF-55) - Operation Passage To Freedom
... Thereafter, for more than 16 years, she alternated operations on the west coast of the United States with tours in the Far East resupplying ships ... of her service was her participation in Operation Passage to Freedom, the evacuation of thousands of Vietnamese refugees from communist-controlled areas of Vietnam ...
USS Montrose (APA-212) - Operational History - Peacetime Operations - Operation Passage To Freedom
... proceeded to Haiphong to evacuate refugees from there to Saigon as part of operation "Passage to Freedom." By 12 September Montrose had evacuated 9,060 people ...
USS Hickman County (LST-825) - Service History - Operation Passage To Freedom, 1954–1955
... On 11 August 1954 LST-825 departed Yokosuka for French Indochina, where she assisted in "Operation Passage to Freedom." When the French withdrew from Indochina, after their defeat in ... and cramped sailors were rewarded when many of the 184 children born on the "Passage to Freedom" were named after U.S ...
Operation Passage To Freedom - Difficulties and Criticism
... Diem, who had a reputation for heavily favouring Catholics, granted his new constituents a disproportionately high number of government and military posts on religious grounds rather than merit ... The disproportionate number of northerners who occupied leadership posts also raised tensions among some regional-minded southerners who regarded them as intruders ...

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