Northumbrian was a dialect of the Old English language spoken in the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria. Together with Mercian, Kentish and West Saxon, it forms one of the sub-categories of Old English devised and employed by modern scholars.
The dialect was spoken from the Humber, now within England, to the Firth of Forth, now within Scotland. During the Viking invasions of the 9th century, Northumbrian came under the influence of the languages of the Viking invaders.
The earliest surviving Old English texts were written in Northumbrian: these are Caedmon's Hymn and Bede's Death Song. Other works including the bulk of Caedmon's poetry have been lost. Other examples of this dialect are the Runes on the Ruthwell Cross from the Dream of the Rood. Also in Northumbrian are the Leiden Riddle and the glosses in the Lindisfarne Gospels (mid 10th century).
The Viking invasion forced the dialect to split in two. The southern Northumbrian dialect was heavily influenced by Norse. The northern Northumbrian dialect not only retained a lot of the Old English words (replaced in the south by Norse words) but was also a strong influence on the development of the English language in northern England, especially the dialects of modern North East England and Scotland. The north-south split was around the Tees river.
Other articles related to "northumbrian dialect, northumbrian":
... Some Scottish and Northumbrian folk still say /uːr ˈfeðər/ or /uːr ˈfɪðər/"our father" and "thou art" ...
Famous quotes containing the word dialect:
“The eyes of men converse as much as their tongues, with the advantage that the ocular dialect needs no dictionary, but is understood all the world over.”
—Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882)