In 1944, the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) was founded “in response to termination and assimilation policies that the United States forced upon the tribal governments in contradiction of their treaty rights and status as sovereigns. NCAI stressed the need for unity and cooperation among tribal governments for the protection of their treaty and sovereign rights". “Recognizing the threat posed by termination, fought to maintain Indians’ legal rights and cultural identity.” Indian policy has been federalized since colonial times; however, “until the 1940s, in spite of such major national initiatives as allotment and the Indian Reorganization Act, Indians had never been able to organize on a national basis". Groups such as the Friends of the Indians in the late nineteenth century and the Association on American Indian Affairs (est. 1922) had nearly all-white membership. The NCAI was an Indian-only organization with membership based on tribes, not individuals. Although the “NCAI’s fortunes would ebb and flow . . . the return of Indian veterans at the end of World War II” gave the organization and the Indian people an unexpected boost. “Whether they settled in Indian country or in the cities, these veterans realized expectations and bred a much-needed impatience and assertiveness.” According to Helen Peterson, later executive director of NCAI, “World War Two revived the Indians’ capacity to act on their own behalf.” With the NCAI, Native American people relied on their own people to organize and affect national policy. The NCAI was one of the first major steps in halting termination and giving life to the Self-Determination era.
The Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO), a result of President Lyndon B. Johnson’s War on Poverty legislation and the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, provided grants and other funds directly to tribal governments rather than only state and federal agencies. The War on Poverty Grants “empowered tribes by building tribal capacities, creating independence from the BIA, and knitting tribes together with other tribes and the country as a whole.” As Philip S. Deloria explains, the OEO helped the Indian people become more independent and powerful: for the first time “. . . Indian tribal governments had money and were not beholden for it to the Bureau of Indian Affairs . . . Tribes could, to some degree, set their own priorities." Renewed self-determination by tribes “altered the nature of the and the relationship between tribes and the federal government”. The independence gained by tribes from dealing with the Office of Economic Opportunity helped change the dynamic of Indian affairs in relation to the federal government.
The Native American Rights Fund (NARF) is a national legal-advocacy and nonprofit organization founded by Indians in 1970 to assist Indians in their legal battles. It has become the primary national advocacy group for Native Americans. "It is funded largely by grants from private foundations and (despite its adversarial relationship) the Federal Government.” NARF’s legal, policy, and public education work is concentrated in five key areas: preservation of tribes; protection of tribal natural resources; promotion of Native American human rights; accountability of governments to Native Americans; and development of Indian law and educating the public about Indian rights, laws, and issues. “NARF focuses on applying existing laws and treaties to guarantee that national and state governments live up to their legal obligations . . . works with religious, civil rights, and other Native American organizations to shape the laws that will help assure the civil and religious rights of all Native Americans.” Since its inception, NARF has provided legal expertise at the national level. NARF has trained many young attorneys, both Indians and non-Indians, who intend to specialize in Native American legal issues. "NARF has successfully argued every Supreme Court case involving Native Americans since 1973." NARF has affected tens of thousands of Indian people in its work for more than 250 tribes in all fifty states to develop strong self-governance, sound economic development, prudent natural resources management and positive social development. It continues to handle civil rights cases for the Native American community in the United States.
Other articles related to "national":
... These national bodies are the rule-making body for that nation ... For example the British Orienteering Federation is the national governing body for the United Kingdom ...
... the division has become a four brigade combat team division with National Guardsmen from throughout the Pacific/Western United States and Oceania ... service in World War I as a depot division, it was reorganised as the National Guard division for California, Nevada, and Utah, before seeing service in the Pacific Theatre of World War II ... The division was redesignated the National Guard unit for California alone, and it continues to serve domestically as such, mostly in homeland security operations ...
... Instead of October 3, the National Reunification should be celebrated on the first Sunday of October ... hours would be seen as a provocation and devaluing the national holiday ... would have meant that it would sometimes fall on 7 October, which happens to have been the national day of East Germany this date would thus have been seen as commemorating ...
... The German musician Nico sometimes performed the national anthem at concerts and dedicated it to militant Andreas Baader, leader of the Red Army Faction ... on the album Volk, which contains fourteen songs with adaptations of national anthems ... In a subsequent television interview German national coach Rainer Kiessler said that he was appalled and could not accept what had happened ...
... poet France Prešeren, considered the national poet of Slovenes ... On 27 September 1989, it became the national anthem of Slovenia ... of the idea of a united Slovenia, which the March Revolution in 1848 elevated into a national political programme ...
Famous quotes containing the word national:
“Thinking is the most unhealthy thing in the world, and people die of it just as they die of any other disease. Fortunately, in England at any rate, thought is not catching. Our splendid physique as a people is entirely due to our national stupidity.”
—Oscar Wilde (18541900)
“...America has enjoyed the doubtful blessing of a single-track mind. We are able to accommodate, at a time, only one national hero; and we demand that that hero shall be uniform and invincible. As a literate people we are preoccupied, neither with the race nor the individual, but with the type. Yesterday, we romanticized the tough guy; today, we are romanticizing the underprivileged, tough or tender; tomorrow, we shall begin to romanticize the pure primitive.”
—Ellen Glasgow (18731945)
“It is not unkind to say, from the standpoint of scenery alone, that if many, and indeed most, of our American national parks were to be set down on the continent of Europe thousands of Americans would journey all the way across the ocean in order to see their beauties.”
—Franklin D. Roosevelt (18821945)