Printing, Paper and Reading
Movable type printing press (1440s)
Invented by Johannes Gutenberg. His great innovation was not the printing itself, but instead of using readily-carved plates as before, he used separate letters (types) from which the printing plates for pages were made up. This meant the types were recyclable and a page cast could be made up far faster than with readily-carved plates.
Invented in China, transmitted through Islamic Spain to Europe in the 13th century where the papermaking processes were mechanized by water-powered mills and paper presses (see paper mill).
European innovation. Florence, Italy. Convex lenses, of help only to the far-sighted. Concave lenses were not developed prior to the 15th century.
Medieval innovation to mark paper products and to discourage counterfeiting. First introduced in Bologna, Italy.
Famous quotes containing the words reading and/or paper:
“Nothing is so engaging as the little domestic cares into which you appear to be entering, and as to reading it is useful for only filling up the chinks of more useful and healthy occupations.”
—Thomas Jefferson (17431826)
“Assumptions of male superiority are as widespread and deep rooted and every bit as crippling to the woman as the assumptions of white supremacy are to the Negro.... this is no more a mans world than it is a white world.”
—Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, African American civil rights organization. SNCC Position Paper (Women in the Movement)