Maio Creole - Grammar - Personal Pronouns

Personal Pronouns

According to their function, the pronouns can be subject pronouns or object pronouns. Furthermore, in each of these functions, according to the position within the sentence the pronouns can be unstressed or stressed.

The unstressed subject pronouns generally bear the function of the subject and the come before the verb. Ex.:

  • crê.We want.”

The stressed subject pronouns bear the function of some kind of vocative and usually are separated from the verb (disjunctive pronouns). Ex.:

  • , m’ stâ lí, í , bú stâ lâ.Me, I am here, and you, you are there.”

The object pronouns, as the name shows, bear the function of the object (direct or indirect). The unstressed object pronouns are used with the present-tense forms of verbs. Ex.:

  • M’ odjá-’l. “I have seen it.”
  • M’ tâ bejá-bu. “I kiss you.”

The stressed object pronouns are used with the past-tense forms of verbs, when they are the second pronoun in a series of two pronouns, and after prepositions (prepositional pronouns). Ex.:

  • Ês tâ odjába-êl. “They saw it.”
  • Bú dâ-m’-êl. “You gave it to me.”
  • M’ stâ fártu dí ! “I’m fed up of you!”

When there are two object pronouns, the indirect pronoun comes first while the direct pronoun comes after, and the sentence structure becomes Subject – Verb – Indirect Pronoun – Direct Pronoun.

There are no reflexive pronouns. To indicate reflexivity, Creole uses the expression cabéça ("head") after the possessive determiner. Ex.:

  • Ês mordê sês cabéça. “They have bitten themselves.”

There are no reciprocal pronouns. To indicate reciprocity, Creole uses the expression cumpanhêru ("companion"). Ex.:

  • Ês mordê cumpanhêru. “They have bitten each other.”

Read more about this topic:  Maio Creole, Grammar

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