Anisotropy Energy of A Single-domain Magnet
Suppose that a ferromagnet is single-domain in the strictest sense: the magnetization is uniform and rotates in unison. If the magnetic moment is and the volume of the particle is, the magnetization is, where is the saturation magnetization and are direction cosines (components of a unit vector) so . The energy associated with magnetic anisotropy can depend on the direction cosines in various ways, the most common of which are discussed below.
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