School of The Universal Mind After Lu Jiuyuan
The philosophy of Lu Jiuyuan attracted not many followers in China following Lu's death in 1193. Lu's philosophy was almost completely forgotten until a later thinker named Wang Yangming republished and wrote his commentaries on Lu's works during Ming dynasty. Wang Yangming played a significant role in developing Lu's philosophy and the school of the universal mind rivaling Zhuxi's school of the principle. The school of the universal mind is also called the Lu-Wang school after the names of two major thinkers, Lu Jiuyuan and Wang Yangming. The influence of this school in China following Wang's death was however curtailed by the strong centralized bureaucratic state system which controlled the education of all the government officials through the state sponsored examination which was heavily influenced by the curriculum designed by Zhu Xi. The influence of Lu-Wang school in Japan was however much greater owing to the comparatively more decentralized government system following the Sengoku (Warring states) period. The Oyomei (Japanese for Wang Yangming) school in Japan inspired and made great influences on subsequent Japanese thinkers and activists such as Nakae Tōju and Ōshio Heihachirō.
Lu's interpretation of Confucianism remained influential in China into the twentieth century. In the early twentieth century Lu's philosophy was re-popularized by Liang Shuming in his book The Civilization and Philosophy of the East and the West (1921). The Nationalist warlord Yan Xishan attempted to revive Confucianism in Shanxi largely on the model of the Lu-Wang school. .
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