Lithuanian Grammar - Nouns - Typology - Grouping By A Syllable Nucleus of A Pre-desinential Syllable

Grouping By A Syllable Nucleus of A Pre-desinential Syllable

In the tables below the possibilities of syllable nucleus of the next-to-last syllable and their accent is shown. The different sound of a next-to-last syllable makes no grammatical distinction, for example, words nóras – wish and kū́nas – body, are of the same declensional and accentuation patterns. But there are a few certain differences in the accentuation features of the nucleus sounds of the next-to-last syllable. Most of the vocals and diphthongs can have either of the accents: a start-firm or an end-firm. Short a, e sounds, when they are in a stem of a word and stressed, lengthen and have always an end-firm accent; i, u are short and there is no accentual differentiation in their stress. Mixed diphthongs a, e + l, m, n, r have the first element lengthened when stressed in a start-firm accent, when in i, u + l, m, n, r and a diphthong ui the first element remains short in the same case. The words having ą, ę in a pre-desinential syllable are not included here because of the lack of declensional types. Some examples: rą̃stas 2 – balk, timber; žąsìs 4 – goose; ąsà 4 – handle; kę́sas 3 – hassock.

The four different accentuation patterns are distinguished by two different colors in the rows of the table, their sequence is from the top to the bottom – I, II, III, IV. The words of each accentuation type are given in the following sequence of the declensional types:

  • The first declension (masculine)
    • -as,
    • -is (I-II accentuational pattern) / -ys (III-IV accentuational patterns) and a few -ias words. Their genitive singular is -io.
  • The second declension (feminine)
    • -a (-ia)
  • The third declension (mostly feminine, few masculine): -is; genitive singular is -ies
  • The fourth declension (masculine): -us (-ius)

Some spaces of the tables are not filled, but this does not mean that there are no words which would fit. The sounds a, e (end-firm when stressed) and i, u (short) can not be start-firm and consequently the word having them in the next-to-last stressed syllable can not be of the first and the third accentuation pattern. Some of the declensional types include few words, for example there are only two words of the third accentuation pattern in the fifth declension: sūnùs and lietùs. The number of words (Dictionary of contemporary Lithuanian language / Dabartinės Lietuvių kalbos žodynas; the fourth issue, 2000) of the declensional patterns can be checked in the section above.

The numbers are written after some of the words in the tables. They mean an alternative existent accentuation pattern and are given only for some of the words, which have an alternative accentuation in a language. Notice that the type of accentuation of a word is shown by the place in the table and the number added means only an alternative accentuation type, which is not necessarily the main one. Some of the alternative accentuation patterns of a word are used equally (then they are given not in brackets here), some are known from dialects, not preferred (then they are given in brackets).

Here are some illustrations of the alternative accentuation: a word nykštỹs 3 is also commonly said nýkštis 1; zýlė 1 is also known as zylė̃ 3 in some dialects, but this form is used more narrowly and not shown here. Similarly, a word rýkštė 1 is also known as rykštė̃ 4; this is shown in the table. In a case of šálmas 3 – helmet, the variant šal̃mas 4 is also very common. The alternative forms are most usually present between the 1-3 and 2-4 accentuation patterns, same in the type of an accent. But there are also different cases, for example, rýkštė 1 and rykštė̃ 4. The fourth accentuation paradigm can be result of a shift of the third paradigm. The shift can happen following nivellation of the two accents, a loss of accentual contrast. In a case of nivellation of the start-firm and end-firm accents the distinction between the 3-4 and 1-2 loses its ground, because in a place of the stress the 1 with the 2, the 3 with the 4 acentuation groups differ only in a few cases.

Among the words given in the table, some are older, for example, ver̃pstė 2 – distaff, sker̃džius 2 – chief cowherd, butcher, and some other. Some words are borrowings: bánkas 1 – bank, tánkas 1 – tank, dùrpės - peat, turf and some other. Old borrowings: vỹnas 2 (4) – wine, blỹnas 2 – pancake, rõžė 2 – rose, rūtà 2 (4) – rue, slyvà 2 (4) – plum, vyšnià 2 (1) – cherry, and some other.

o ė y ū i.e. uo
nóras - wish
plótas - area, stretch
sóstas - throne, stool
vė́jas - wind výras - man, male
týrai pl. - large empty stretches
sývai pl. - liquid part of smth.
kū́nas - body
liū́nas - bog
píenas - milk
svíestas (3) - butter
púodas - pot
šúoras - gust, air-blast
skrúostas - cheek
brólis - brother
sótis - satiety
klónis - dene, hollow
mólis - clay
pavė́sis - cooler place
in a shade
blýksnis - flash
nýkštis 3 - thumb
sū́ris - cheese
kū́jis - hammer
kū́gis - cone
kíetis - artemisia šúolis - jump
slúoksnis - layer
súopis - buzzard
rúonis - seal
úošvis - father-in-law
kója - leg
lóva - bed
vė́tra - windstorm, scud
lė́šos pl - fund, means
pė́da 3 - foot
gýsla - thread, vas
ýda - defect, vice
lū́pa - lip
kū́dra - pond, mere
líepa - linden
píeva - meadow
síena - wall
úoga - berry
dúona - bread
kúosa - jackdaw
dróbė - linen, cloth
rópė - turnip
zýlė - tit
rýkštė (4) - rod, switch
lýsvė - bed
kíelė (3) - wagtail úošvė - mother-in-law
nósis - nose
krósnis - stove, furnace
tóšis - upper layer
of birch bark
klė́tis - barn, granary nýtys pl. - harness for
warp
lū́šis - lynx
rū́šis (3) - sort; species
kliū́tis (4) - obstacle; hurdle
íetis - spear, javelin
sõdas - garden
skrõblas - hornbeam
dė̃klas - encasement
kė̃nis - fir (abies)
sklỹpas 4 - plot, parcel
vỹnas - wine
blỹnas - pancake
bū̃das - mode; nature luõtas (1) - dugout, cockleshell
žõdis - word
skõnis - taste
lõbis - treasure
vė̃sis - cool
bė̃giai - metal, railing
smė̃lis - sand
lỹgis - level
skỹstis - liquid, fluid; liquidity
bū̃vis - state, existence
dū̃ris - prick
smū̃gis - punch; thwack
rū̃gštis - sourness
kiẽtis - hardness
viẽnis - oneness
miẽžis - barley
sriẽgis - screw thread
guõlis - lying place;
bearing
kopà - dune vyšnià - cherry
slyvà - plum
rūtà - rue (plant) vietà - place
rõžė - rose nė̃gė - lamprey (fish) lū̃gnė - nuphar piẽnė - sowthistle
(krū̃tis) - breast
sõdžius - village
rõjus - paradise
skỹrius - departament; chapter spiẽčius - close cluster, swarm
stógas - roof
kótas - shaft, handle
óras - air; weather
krė́slas 1 - easy chair
pė́das - sheaf
rýtas - morning grū́das - grain stíebas - stipe
dríežas - lizzard
lúobas - thick peel
úodas - mosquito
lokỹs - bear vėžỹs (4) - crayfish nykštỹs (1) - thumb
pėdà 1 - foot skiedrà (4) - sliver, shingle (kuopà) 1 - company (military)
brėkšmė̃ - dusk, break
rūgštìs (1) - acid
(rūšìs) 1 - sort; species
sūnùs - son lietùs - rain
lõpas - patch rū̃kas - fog sniẽgas - snow
kiẽmas - yard
šiẽnas - hay
kuõlas - stake, picket
lovỹs - trough, chamfer
korỹs - honeycomb
vėžlỹs - turtle ryšỹs - link, bond
plyšỹs - interstice, opening
būrỹs - squad; huddle
rūsỹs - cellar, vault
kvietỹs 3 - wheat
žmonà - wife
tvorà - fence
vorà - queue, file
vėsà - cool
bėdà - trouble, grief
mėsà - meat
bylà - lawsuit, cause
tylà - silence
pūgà - blizzard
stūmà - repulsion
dienà - day
šviesà - light
liepsnà - flame
puotà - feast; beanfeast
uolà - rock
srovė̃ - current, stream gėlė̃ - flower
kėdė̃ - chair
dėžė̃ - box
skylė̃ - hole, slot žūklė̃ - fishing miẽlės pl - yeast
rievė̃ - notch, groove
duobė̃ (3) - pit, hollow
uoslė̃ - smell; scent
lytìs - sex, gender
vytìs - switch, rod
krūtìs - breast
griūtìs - avalanche, fall
žmogùs - man (human) piẽtūs pl. - dinner; south
au ai ei a e i u
šáukštas - spoon káimas - village, countryside véidas - face
jáutis - bull, ox stáibis 2 - shin; forearm
for birds: tarsus
sáuja - palmfull káina - price
sáulė - sun
kriáušė - pear
váišė - regale
láimė - luck, happines
báimė - fear
méilė - love
gaũbtas - hood
skliaũtas 4 - vault
aũlas 4 - bootleg;
saĩtas 4 - bond; leash
žaĩzdras 4 - forge, hearth
pleĩštas 1 - wedge, shim
reĩdas - raid
pãdas - sole, metatarsus
žãbas - switch, stick
lãbas - good, welfare
mẽtas - specific time
sprìgtas - flip, flick bùtas - flat
kùras - fuel
paũkštis - bird
plaũtis - lung
kriaũšis - steep slope
raĩštis - band, tie
kaĩštis - spile, plug
peĩlis - knife vãris - copper kẽlis - knee
mẽdis - tree
sẽnis - old
balà - puddle girià - forest (large) putà - froth
raũdė - rudd
kiaũlė - pig
(kriaũšė) - steep slope
raĩdė 4 - letter
skaĩdrė (4) - slide, transparency
kreĩvė (4) - curve, graph brãškė - strawberry žẽmė - earth, ground
prẽkė - commodity, item
kẽkė - raceme, cluster
bìtė - bee ùpė - river
pùsė - half, side
striùkė - jacket
gaĩštis 4 - dallying, waste of time slìstis (4) - simulation dùrys pl - door
vaĩsius - fruit; growth
skaĩčius - number; digit
cùkrus - sugar
šiáudas - straw
máuras - slime, algae
dáiktas - thing (material)
láiškas - letter (message)
áidas - echo
méistras - master ; craftsman
aikštė̃ - square, field
sraũtas - flow, torrent
laukas - field; outside
džiaugsmas - joy
kraũjas - blood
maĩstas - food
žaĩbas - thunder
žaĩslas - toy
laĩkas - time
laĩdas - cable, lead
veĩksmas - act, action krãštas - edge; country
smãkras - chin
kãras - war
lẽdas - ice
pẽnas - pabulum
kẽras - plant sinuous
ramification
klijaĩ pl. - glue dùgnas - floor, bottom
šaulỹs - rifleman, shooter
straublỹs - trunk, proboscis
(kriaušỹs ) - steep slope
gaidỹs - rooster dagỹs - thistle
vabzdỹs - insect
kepsnỹs - roast, fry
krepšỹs - basket, bag
genỹs - woodpecker
kẽlias - road
svẽčias - guest
drugỹs - butterfly, moth; shake, shiver
briaunà - edge, brow
klausà - hearing (sense)
dainà - song
gaivà - fresh
šeimà - family girà - kvass
šaulė̃ - shooter
raukšlė̃ - pucker
raidė̃ 2 - slide, transparency eilė̃ - row katė̃ - cat skruzdė̃ - ant
ausìs - ear
šlaunìs - thigh
(kriaušìs ) - steep slope
gaištìs 2 - dallying, waste of time naktìs - night
šalìs - country
sritìs - area
vinìs - nail, spike
ugnìs - fire
pusnìs - snowdrift
žuvìs - fish
alùs - beer medùs - honey vidùs - inside
midùs - mead (drink)
al el am em an en
káltas - chisel, boaster kéltas - ferryboat
méldas - bulrush
bánkas - bank
tánkas - tank
lénkas - Pole
sámtis - ladle (spoon)
málka - firewood billet
dálba - pole, stick
gélda - trough, tub bámba - navel
támsta - address to a person (formal)
lémpa - lamp
kálvė - smithery, forge kélnės pl. - trousers
pélkė - swamp
pémpė - lapwing néndrė - reed
ménkė - cod
váltis - boat pántis - tether
ántis - duck
ánkštis - pod, pulse
péntis - thick side of a sharp implement
stálčius - drawer (furniture) ámžius - age
bal̃dai pl. - furniture gañdras 4 - stork beñdras - confederate,
companion; accomplice
val̃gis - meal, dish, food
al̃ksnis - alder
dal̃gis - scythe
kam̃štis - plug, cork
sam̃tis - ladling
skrañdis - stomach
añtis - slash of garment at the bosom; place inside it to the girdle
añkštis - lack of space
sleñkstis - threshold
valkà - draught (air) rankà - hand; arm
pal̃vė - flat place in terrene side behind shore dunes šveñtė - feast, celebration
skleñdė 4 - latch
beñdrė - see bendras
bal̃džius - furniture maker (person)
kálnas - mountain
šálmas 4 - helmet
délnas - palm, flat of a hand
kélmas - stump, stool
kémsas - hassock žándas - face side below a cheekbone
lángas - window
galvà - head
bal̃nas - saddle
val̃ksmas - haul of a fishing net;
track of lumber dragging
pel̃nas - profit kam̃pas - angle; corner lañkas - bow (weapon)
gañdas - hearsay, rumour
krañtas - waterside, shore
žaltỹs (3) - grass snake; colubrid kamblỹs - stipe; squat ending
dramblys - elephant
kremblỹs - gnarly tree
kalbà - language
spalvà - colour
algà - salary
valkà - puddle
lankà - meadow, hollow
dangà - covering
bandà - herd; loaf (food)
lentà - board; wood cut
kaltė̃ - guilt; fault templė̃ - elastic string tankmė̃ - thicket sklendė̃ (2) - valve; latch
dantìs - tooth
dangùs - sky
ar er ir ur
tárpas - gap
tvártas - cattle-shed
žárdas - rack from poles
ìrklas - oar, paddle dùrklas - dagger
žvìrblis - sparrow
vìržis - heather, ling
žìrnis - pea
gùrkšnis - swallow, gulp
kùrmis - mole (animal)
várna - crow
žárna 3 - bowel; hose
stìrna - roe, hind
gìrna - millstone
spùrga - doughnut
kárvė - cow šnérvė 4 - nostril
kérpė - lichen
šérpė - burr, tear off
dùrpės - peat
kártis - long slender pole kìrkšnis 3 (4) - groin
svìrtis (4, 3, 2) - lever; shaduf
var̃žtas - screw
var̃tai pl. - gate
kar̃tas - time (instance
or occurrence)
ner̃štas - spawning
sver̃tas - lever; fig. leverage
skir̃pstas - field elm Tur̃tas - wealth, property
pur̃slas 4 (1) - spatter, spray
kar̃štis - heat
kar̃šis - bream
ver̃šis - calf tvir̃tis - strength of material, toughness
virkščià - stem of some
gramineous plants (pea, potato)
pirkià (4) - house, cottage (traditional)
gar̃dė - barrier wood cut
in a side of a horse carriage
ver̃pstė - distaff vir̃vė - rope
der̃lius - yield, harvest
sker̃džius - chief cowherd; butcher
Tur̃gus - market, mart
dárbas - work bérnas - boy, lad;
hind, hired hand
béržas - birch
šérnas (4) - wild boar
spìrgas - crackling (food)
žìrgas (4) - riding horse
spùrgas - hop cone; bud; catkin
ùrvas - cave; burrow
arklỹs - horse
burnà - mouth
varškė̃ - curd versmė̃ - fount, spring
širdìs - heart
kirkšnìs 1 (4) - groin
var̃das - name
gar̃sas - sound
kar̃klas 2 - willow, osier
gar̃das - animal stall
šer̃kšnas - hoarfrost, rime
ver̃slas - trade, enterprice, business
ver̃ksmas - cry
vir̃bas - rod, switch
dir̃žas - belt (clothing); strap
pir̃štas - finger
pur̃vas - mud, dirt
siurblỹs - pump; (dulkių siurblys) vacuum cleaner
čiurlỹs - swift
varžà - resistance; impedance (physics)
barzdà - beard
skerlà - sliver, shiver purkšnà - mizzle, spraying
tarmė̃ - dialect
dermė̃ - tone, fitness
varlė̃ - frog
vertė̃ - value
erdvė̃ - space
veržlė̃ - nut (hardware)
tartìs - pronunciation, utterance šerdìs (3 1) - core pirtìs - steambath
viršùs - top
il ul im um in un
tìltas - bridge
miltai pl. - flour
tùntas 4 - swarm, flock
dìlbis - forearm
ìltis - fang
mùlkis - ninny, gull, noodle
stùlgis - dagger
kùlšis - haunch, thigh
kùmštis - fist vìngis (2) - winding, curve
lìnkis - bend, curvature
smìlga - bentgrass
vìlna - wool
tìmpa - elastic string
drìmba 2 - ponderous person (derisive)
vìnkšna - elm (ulmus laevis)
spìnta - cabinet
kìnka - rare side of a leg about a knee level
plùnksna - feather
dìldė - rasp tùlpė - tulip
dùlkė - particle of dust, mote
bùlvė - potato
dùmplės pl. - bellows pìnklės pl. (2) - trap, gin
skìltis (3) - segment
of a fruit, vegetable;
section in a recurring
print
pìntis - amadou
dul̃ksmas 4 - dust rise stum̃bras - wisent
dum̃blas 4 - silt
iñdas - dishware, utensil
tiñklas - net
giñklas - weapon
skil̃vis - gizzard kum̃pis - ham skliñdis - pancake
liñksnis - (case) inflection, case (grammar)
suñkis - gravitation
rinkà - market sunkà - strained juice
gul̃bė - swan drum̃zlė 4 - sediment bliñdė (4) - great willow
vil̃nis 4 - wave
skiltìs 1 - (see 1)
vil̃kas - wolf
pil̃vas - belly
stul̃pas - pole, shaft, pillar
kul̃nas - heel
pul̃kas - regiment; swarm
rim̃bas - knout; whip gum̃bas - knag; lumb tuñtas 1 - swarm, flock
skilvỹs 2 - gizzard stulgỹs - great snipe krumplỹs (2) - knuckle; cog
dulksnà - drizzle sunkà 2 - strained juice
drumzlė̃ 2 - sediment
vilnìs 2 - wave kulkšnìs (1) - ankle

Read more about this topic:  Lithuanian Grammar, Nouns, Typology

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