List of State Leaders in 1918 - Europe

Europe

  • Albania
    • Military governor -
      1. Adolf Freiherr von Rhemen zu Barensfeld, Austro-Hungarian Governor-general in Serbia (1916–1918)
      2. Hermann Kövess von Kövessháza, Austro-Hungarian Governor-general in Serbia (1918)
    • Head of State - Turhan Përmeti, Chairman of the Provisional Government of Albania (1918–1920)
  • Andorra
    • Monarchs -
      • French Co-Prince - Raymond Poincaré, French Co-Prince of Andorra (1913–1920)
      • Episcopal Co-Prince - Juan Benlloch i Vivó, Episcopal Co-Prince of Andorra (1907–1919)
    • First Syndic - Josep Vilanova, First Syndic of Andorra (1918–1920)
  • Armenia
    • declared independencen on 28 May 1918
    • Head of State -
      1. Aram Manukian, Acting Chairman of the National Council of Armenia (1918)
      2. Avetis Aharonyan, Chairman of the National Council of Armenia (1918)
      3. Avetik Sahakyan, Chairman of the Council of Armenia (1918–1919)
    • Prime Minister - Hovhannes Katchaznouni, Prime Minister of Armenia (1918–1919)
    • Kars Republic (unrecognized state)
      • declared independence on 1 December 1918
      • Head of State - Cihangirzade İbrahim Bey, Head of State of the Kars Republic (1918–1919)
  • Austria-Hungary
    • dissolved in October 1918
    • Monarch - Charles, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary (1916–1918)
    • Heads of Government -
      • Cisleithania
        1. Ernst Seidler von Feuchtenegg, Minister-President of Austria (1917–1918)
        2. Baron Max Hussarek von Heinlein, Minister-President of Austria (1918)
        3. Heinrich Lammasch, Minister-President of Austria (1918)
      • Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
        1. Sándor Wekerle, Prime Minister of Hungary (1917–1918)
        2. Count János Hadik, Prime Minister of Hungary (1918)
  • Azerbaijan
    • declared independence on 28 May 1918
    • Head of State -
      1. Mammad Amin Rasulzade, Chairman of the National Council of Azerbaijan (1918)
      2. Alimardan Topchubashov, Chairman of Parliament of Azerbaijan (1918–1920)
    • Prime Minister - Fatali Khan Khoyski, Prime Minister of Azerbaijan (1918–1919)
    • Republic of Aras (unrecognized state)
      • declared independence in December 1918
      • Head of State - Jafargulu Khan Nakhchivanski, Head of State of the Republic of Arash (1918–1919)
  • Belarus
    • declared its independence on 25 March 1918
    • Head of State -
      1. Jan Sierada, Chairman of the Rada of Belarus (1918)
      2. Pavel Alyaksyuk, Chairman of the Rada of Belarus (1918)
      3. Iosif Lyosik, Chairman of the Rada of Belarus (1918)
    • Premier -
      1. Jazep Varonka, Chairman of the People's Secretariat of Belarus (1918)
      2. Jan Sierada, Chairman of the People's Secretariat of Belarus (1918)
      3. Raman Skirmunt, Chairman of the People's Secretariat of Belarus (1918)
      4. Anton Luckevich, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Belarus (1918–1919)
  • Belgium
    • Monarch - Albert I, King of the Belgians (1909–1934)
    • Prime Minister -
      1. Charles de Broqueville, Prime Minister of Belgium (1911–1918)
      2. Gérard Cooreman, Prime Minister of Belgium (1918)
      3. Léon Delacroix, Prime Minister of Belgium (1918–1920)
  • Bulgaria
    • Monarch -
      1. Ferdinand I, Tsar of the Bulgarians (1887–1918)
      2. Boris III, Tsar of the Bulgarians (1918–1943)
    • Premier -
      1. Vasil Radoslavov, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bulgaria (1913–1918)
      2. Aleksandar Malinov, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bulgaria (1918)
      3. Teodor Teodorov, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bulgaria (1918–1919)
  • Czechoslovakia
    • declared independence on 28 October 1918
    • President - Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, President of Czechoslovakia (1918–1935)
    • Prime Minister - Karel Kramář, Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia (1918–1919)
  • Denmark
    • Monarch - Christian X, King of Denmark (1912–1947)
    • Prime Minister - Carl Theodor Zahle, Prime Minister of Denmark (1913–1920)
  • Estonia
    • Republic of Estonia
      • declared independence on 24 February 1918
      • Head of State - Konstantin Päts, Prime Minister of the Provisional Government of Estonia (1918–1919)
    • Commune of the Working People of Estonia
      • declared on 29 November 1918
      • Head of State - Jaan Anvelt, Chairman of the Council of The Commune of the Working People of Estonia (1918–1919)
  • Finland
    • Finland
      • Acting Head of State -
        1. Pehr Evind Svinhufvud, Regent of Finland (1917–1918)
        2. Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, Regent of Finland (1918–1919)
      • Monarch - Väinö I, King of Finland (1918)
      • Prime Minister -
        1. Pehr Evind Svinhufvud, Prime Minister of Finland (1917–1918)
        2. Juho Kusti Paasikivi, Prime Minister of Finland (1918)
        3. Lauri Ingman, Prime Minister of Finland (1918–1919)
    • Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic
      • claimed independence between 28 January and 25 April 1918
      • Head of State - Valfrid Perttilä, Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Finland (1918)
      • Head of Government -
        1. Kullervo Manner, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of Finland (1918)
        2. Otto Wille Kuusinen, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of Finland (1918)
        3. Lauri Letonmäki, Acting Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of Finland (1918)
        4. Edvard Gylling, Acting Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of Finland (1918)
  • France
    • President - Raymond Poincaré, President of France (1913–1920)
    • Prime Minister - Georges Clemenceau, President of the Council of Ministers of France (1917–1920)
  • Georgia
    • declared independence on 26 May 1918
    • Head of State - Noe Zhordania, President of the Parliament of Georgia (1918–1919)
    • Prime Minister - Noe Zhordania, Prime Minister of Georgia (1918–1921)
  • German-Austria
    • declared on 12 November 1918
    • Head of State - Franz Dinghofer + Johann Nepomuk Hauser + Karl Seitz, Directory of the Council of State of German-Austria (1918–1919)
    • Chancellor - Karl Renner, Chancellor of German-Austria (1918–1920)
  • Germany
    • Monarch - Wilhelm II, German Emperor (1888–1918)
    • Transitional Head of State -
      1. Richard Müller + Hans-Georg von Beerfelde + Brutus Molkenbuhr, Chairmen of the Executive Council of the Workers' and Soldiers' Councils of Greater Berlin (1918)
      2. Robert Leinert + Max Cohen-Reuss + Hermann Müller, Chairmen of the Central Council of Germany (1918–1919)
    • Head of Government -
      1. Georg von Hertling, Chancellor of Germany (1917–1918)
      2. Prince Maximilian of Baden, Chancellor of Germany (1918)
      3. Friedrich Ebert, Executive chairman of the Council of People's Commissioners of Germany (1918–1919)
  • Greece
    • Monarch - Alexander, King of the Hellenes (1917–1920)
    • Prime Minister - Eleftherios Venizelos, Prime Minister of Greece (1917–1920)
  • Hungary
    • proclaimed its independence on 16 November 1918
    • President - Count Mihály Károlyi, Provisional President of Hungary (1918–1919)
    • Prime Minister - Count Mihály Károlyi, Prime Minister of Hungary (1918–1919)
  • Iceland
    • gained independence on 1 December 1918
    • Monarch - Christian X, King of Iceland (1918–1944)
    • Prime Minister - Jón Magnússon, Prime Minister of Iceland (1917–1922)
  • Italy
    • Monarch - Victor Emmanuel III, King of Italy (1900–1946)
    • Prime Minister - Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, President of the Council of Ministers of Italy (1917–1919)
  • Latvia
    • Latvia
      • declared independence on 18 November 1918
      • Head of State - Jānis Čakste, President of the People's Council of Latvia (1918–1927)
      • Prime Minister - Kārlis Ulmanis, Prime Minister of Latvia (1918–1921)
    • Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic
      • established on 17 December 1918
      • Head of State - Pēteris Stučka, Chairman of the Government of Latvia (1918–1920)
  • Liechtenstein
    • Monarch - Johann II, Prince of Liechtenstein (1859–1929)
    • Administrator -
      1. Leopold Freiherr von Imhof, Land Administrator of Liechtenstein (1914–1918)
      2. Martin Ritter, President of Provisional Executive Committee of Liechtenstein (1918)
      3. Prince Karl Alois, Land Administrator of Liechtenstein (1918–1920)
  • Lithuania
    • Lithuania
      • independence declared on 16 February 1918, the Kingdom of Lithuania was superseded by Lithuania on 2 November 1918
      • Monarch - Mindaugas II, King of Lithuania (1918)
      • Republican Head of State - Antanas Smetona, Chairman of the Lithuanian National Council Presidium (1918–1920)
      • Prime Minister -
        1. Augustinas Voldemaras, Prime Minister of Lithuania (1918)
        2. Mykolas Sleževičius, Prime Minister of Lithuania (1918–1919)
    • Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
      • established on 16 December 1918
      • Communist Party Leader - Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas, Chairman of the Central Committee of the Lithuanian Communist Party (1918–1919)
      • Head of State - Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas, Chairman of the Revolutionary Government of Lithuania (1918–1919)
  • Luxembourg
    • Monarch - Marie-Adélaïde, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg (1912–1919)
    • Prime Minister -
      1. Léon Kauffman, President of the Government of Luxembourg (1917–1918)
      2. Émile Reuter, President of the Government of Luxembourg (1918–1925)
  • Moldavia
    • independence declared on 6 February 1918, united with Romania on 9 April 1918
    • President - Ion Inculeț, President of Moldavia (1917–1918)
  • Monaco
    • Monarch - Albert I, Prince of Monaco (1889–1922)
    • Head of Government - Georges Jaloustre, Acting Minister of State of Monaco (1918–1919)
  • Montenegro
    • annexed by Serbia on 28 November 1918
    • Monarch - Nicholas I, King of Montenegro (1860–1918)
    • Prime Minister - Evgenije Popović, Prime Minister of Montenegro (1917–1918)
  • Netherlands
    • Monarch - Wilhelmina, Queen of the Netherlands (1890–1948)
    • Prime Minister -
      1. Pieter Cort van der Linden, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Netherlands (1913–1918)
      2. Charles Ruijs de Beerenbrouck, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Netherlands (1918–1925)
  • Norway
    • Monarch - Haakon VII, King of Norway (1905–1957)
    • Prime Minister - Gunnar Knudsen, Prime Minister of Norway (1913–1920)
  • Poland
    • regained its independence gradually in autumn 1918
    • Head of State - Józef Piłsudski, Chief of State of Poland (1918–1922)
    • Prime Minister -
      1. Jan Kucharzewski, Prime Minister of Poland (1917–1918)
      2. Antoni Ponikowski, Prime Minister of Poland (1918)
      3. Jan Kanty Steczkowski, Prime Minister of Poland (1918)
      4. Józef Świeżyński, Prime Minister of Poland (1918)
      5. Władysław Wróblewski, Acting Prime Minister of Poland (1918)
      6. Ignacy Daszyński, Premier of the Provisional People's Government of Poland (1918)
      7. Jędrzej Moraczewski, President of the Ministers of Poland (1918–1919)
    • Komancza (unrecognized state)
      • declared its independence on 4 November 1918
      • Head of State - Pantelejmon Shpylka, President of the Council of Komancza (1918–1919)
    • Lemko (unrecognized state)
      • declared its independence on 5 December 1918
      • Head of State - Jaroslav Kacmarcyk, President of Lemko (1918–1920)
  • Portugal
    • President -
      1. Sidónio Pais, President of Portugal (1917–1918)
      2. João do Canto e Castro, President of Portugal (1918–1919)
    • Head of Government -
      1. Sidónio Pais, President of the Revolutionary Committee of Portugal (1917–1918)
      2. João do Canto e Castro, President of the Ministry of Portugal (1918)
      3. João Tamagnini Barbosa, President of the Ministry of Portugal (1918–1919)
  • Romania
    • Monarch - Ferdinand, King of the Romanians (1914–1927)
    • Premier -
      1. Ion I. C. Brătianu, President of the Council of Ministers of Romania (1914–1918)
      2. Alexandru Averescu, President of the Council of Ministers of Romania (1918)
      3. Alexandru Marghiloman, President of the Council of Ministers of Romania (1918)
      4. Constantin Coandă, President of the Council of Ministers of Romania (1918)
      5. Ion I. C. Brătianu, President of the Council of Ministers of Romania (1918–1919)
    • Banat Republic
      • declared its independence on 1 November 1918, occupied by Serbia on 15 November, later divided up between Romania and Serbia
      • President - Otto Roth, President of Banat (1918)
  • Russia
    • Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic
      • the Russian Republic was superseded by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic on 28 January 1918
      • Head of State - Yakov Sverdlov, Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets (1917–1919)
      • Premier - Vladimir Lenin, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of Russia (1917–1924)
    • Provisional All-Russian Government
      • Head of State -
        1. Nikolai Avksentiev, Chairman of the Provisional All-Russian Government of Russia (1918)
        2. Vasily Boldyrev, Chairman of the Provisional All-Russian Government of Russia (1918–1920)
        3. Alexander Kolchak, Supreme Ruler of Russia (1918–1920)
      • Premier - Pyotr Vologodsky, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Russia (1918–1919)
      • Alash (unrecognized state)
        • Head of State - Alikhan Bokeikhanov, Chairman of the Alash Orda (1917–1920)
      • Crimea (unrecognized state)
        • disestablished in January 1918
        • President - Noman Çelebicihan, President of Crimea (1917–1918)
      • Don (unrecognized state)
        • Head of State -
          1. Alexey Kaledin, Ataman of Don (1917–1918)
          2. Anatoliy Nazarov, Ataman of Don (1918)
          3. Pyotr Popov, Ataman of Don (1918)
          4. Pyotr Krasnov, Acting Ataman of Don (1918–1919)
      • Kuban (partially recognized state)
        • declared its independence on 16 February 1918
        • Head of State -
          1. Luka Bych, Chairman of Kuban (1917–1918)
          2. Nikolai Ryabovol, Chairman of Kuban (1918–1919)
      • Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus (partially recognized state)
        • Head of State -
          1. Tapa Tchermoeff, Prime Minister of the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus (1917–1918)
          2. Vassangirai Dzhabagi, Prime Minister of the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus (1918)
          3. Pshemaho Kotsev, Prime Minister of the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus (1918–1919)
  • San Marino
    • Captains Regent -
      1. Angelo Manzoni Borghesi and Giuseppe Balducci, Captains Regent of San Marino (1917–1918)
      2. Ferruccio Martelli and Ermenegildo Mularoni, Captains Regent of San Marino (1918)
      3. Protogene Belloni and Francesco Morri, Captains Regent of San Marino (1918–1919)
  • Serbia
    • merged with the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes on 1 December 1918
    • Monarch - Peter I, King of Serbia (1903–1918)
    • Prime Minister - Nikola Pašić, President of the Ministerial Council of Serbia (1912–1918)
  • Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
    • was formed by the merger of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and the Kingdom of Serbia on 1 December 1918
    • Monarch - Peter I, King of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1921)
    • Prime Minister -
      1. Nikola Pašić, Acting Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918)
      2. Stojan Protić, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1919)
  • Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (unrecognized state)
    • declared its independence on 29 October 1918 and merged with the Kingdom of Serbia to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes on 1 December
    • Head of State - Anton Korošec, President of the National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (1918)
  • Spain
    • Monarch - Alfonso XIII, King of Spain (1886–1931)
    • Prime Minister -
      1. Manuel García-Prieto, Marquis of Alhucemas, President of the Council of Ministers of Spain (1917–1918)
      2. Antonio Maura, President of the Council of Ministers of Spain (1918)
      3. Manuel García-Prieto, Marquis of Alhucemas, President of the Council of Ministers of Spain (1918)
      4. Álvaro de Figueroa, Count of Romanones, President of the Council of Ministers of Spain (1918–1919)
  • Sweden
    • Monarch - Gustaf V, King of Sweden (1907–1950)
    • Prime Minister - Nils Edén, Prime Minister of Sweden (1917–1920)
  • Switzerland
    • Swiss Federal Council:
      Eduard Müller (1895–1919), Giuseppe Motta (1911–1940), Camille Decoppet (1912–1919), Edmund Schulthess (1912–1935), Felix Calonder (1913–1920, President), Gustave Ador (1917–1919), Robert Haab (1917–1929)
  • Transcaucasia
    • declared its independencen on 24 February 1918, and was dissolved on 28 May 1918
    • Head of State - Nikolay Chkheidze, Chairman of the Diet of Transcaucasia (1918)
    • Prime Minister - Akaki Chkhenkeli, Prime Minister of Transcaucasia (1918)
  • Ukraine
    • Ukrainian People's Republic
      • declared its independence on 22 January 1918, was temporarily superseded by the Ukrainian State between 29 April and 14 December 1918
      • Head of State -
        1. Mykhailo Hrushevskyi, Chairman of the Central Rada of Ukraine (1917–1918)
        2. Pavlo Skoropadskyi, Hetman of Ukraine (1918)
        3. Volodymyr Vynnychenko, Chairman of the Directory of Ukraine (1918–1919)
      • Premier -
        1. Volodymyr Vynnychenko, Chairman of the Council of People's Ministers of Ukraine (1917–1918)
        2. Vsevolod Holubovych, Chairman of the Council of People's Ministers of Ukraine (1918)
        3. Mykola Sakhno-Ustymovych, Otaman of the Council of People's Ministers of Ukraine (1918)
        4. Mykola Vasylenko, Acting Otaman of the Council of People's Ministers of Ukraine (1918)
        5. Fedir Lyzohub, Otaman of the Council of People's Ministers of Ukraine (1918)
        6. Serhiy Gerbel, Otaman of the Council of People's Ministers of Ukraine (1918)
        7. Volodymyr Chekhivsky, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Ukraine (1918–1919)
    • West Ukrainian People's Republic
      • declared its independence on 1 November 1918
      • Head of State - Yevhen Petrushevych, President of the Ukrainian National Council (1918–1919)
      • Premier - Kost Levytsky, Chairman of the State Secretariat of West Ukraine (1918–1919)
  • United Kingdom
    • Monarch - George V, King of the United Kingdom (1910–1936)
    • Prime Minister - David Lloyd George, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1916–1922)

Read more about this topic:  List Of State Leaders In 1918

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