List of Roman Auxiliary Regiments - TABLE I: Regiments Attested in The Reign of Hadrian

TABLE I: Regiments Attested in The Reign of Hadrian

To access the table of auxiliary regiments for the province of your interest, click on the relevant note.

  • Britannia (England/Wales) Britannia
  • Germania Inferior (S Netherlands/NW Rhineland) Germania Inf
  • Germania Superior (S Rheinland/Alsace-Lorraine) Germania Sup
  • Raetia/Noricum (Germany S of Danube/Switzerland/Austria) Raetia
  • Pannonia Sup & Inf (W Hungary/Slovenia) Pannonia
  • Moesia Superior (Serbia) f
  • Moesia Inferior (N Bulgaria, coastal Romania) Moesia Inf
  • Dacia (Romania) Dacia
  • Cappadocia (Central/East Turkey) Cappadocia
  • Syria inc Judaea, Arabia (Syria, Lebanon, Palestine/Israel, Jordan) Syria
  • Aegyptus (Egypt) Egypt
  • Mauretania inc Africa Pro (Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco) Mauretania
  • Other provinces m

KEY:

c.R. = civium Romanorum ("of Roman citizens"): an honorific title
eq = equitata (i.e. contains a cavalry contingent)
sagitt = sagittariorum (archer unit)
unit in bold type = milliaria (double-strength) regiment

^Britannia

Table I(a): BRITANNIA
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES COHORTES
Agrippina Miniata
I Hispanorum Asturum
II Asturum
Augusta Gallorum Petriana c.R.
Augusta Gallorum Proculeiana
Picentiana Gallorum
II Gallorum Sebosiana
Gallorum et Thracum classiana
I Pannoniorum Sabiniana
I Pannoniorum Tampiana
I Thracum
I Tungrorum
Hispanorum Vettonum
Augusta Vocontiorum
I Aquitanorum
II Asturum eq
IV Breucorum
I Augusta Bracarum
III Bracaraugustanorum
I Baetasiorum c.R.
I Batavorum eq
I Celtiberorum
I Aelia classica
I Ulpia Cugernorum c.R.
I Aelia Dacorum
I Delmatarum
II Delmatarum
IV Delmatarum
I Frisiavonum
II Gallorum veterana eq
IV Gallorum eq
V Gallorum
VI Gallorum
I Hispanorum eq
I Aelia Hispanorum eq
I Lingonum eq
II Lingonum eq
III Lingonum eq
IV Lingonum eq
I Menapiorum
I Morinorum
I nauticarum
I Augusta Nerviana Germanorum eq
I Nerviorum
II Nerviorum
III Nerviorum
IV Nerviorum
II Pannoniorum
V Raetorum
I Sunucorum
I Thracum
II Thracum veterana
VII Thracum
I Tungrorum
II Tungrorum c.L. eq
I Vangionum eq
I Vardulorum c.R. eq
II Vasconum c.R.


I Hamiorum sagitt

^Germania Inf

Table I(b): GERMANIA INFERIOR
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
Afrorum veterana
Longiniana Gallorum
Gallorum et Thracum classiana
Moesica felix
I Noricorum c.R.
Sulpicia c.R.
I Thracum
II Asturum
III Breucorum
VI Breucorum
VI Brittonum
I civium Romanorum eq
II civium Romanorum eq
I classica
II Hispanorum
I Flavia Hispanorum eq
VI ingenuorum c.R.
I Latobicorum et Varcianorum
I Lucensium
I Pannoniorum et Delmatarum eq
I Raetorum eq c.R.
VI Raetorum
IV Thracum eq
II Varcianorum eq
XV voluntariorum c.R.

^Germania Sup

Table I(c): GERMANIA SUPERIOR
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
Gallorum Indiana
I Scubulorum
I Aquitanorum veterana
III Aquitanorum eq c.R.
IV Aquitanorum eq c.R.
I Asturum equitata eq
I Biturigum
Augusta Cyrenaica eq
II Augusta Cyrenaica
I Flavia Damascenorum
III Delmatarum eq
V Delmatarum
I Germanorum c.R.
I Helvetiorum
II Hispanorum eq
Ituraeorum c.R.
I Ligurum et Hispanorum c.R.
II Raetorum c.R.
VII Raetorum eq
IV Vindelicorum
XXIV voluntariorum c.R.
XXVI voluntariorum c.R.
XXX voluntariorum c.R.
XXXII voluntariorum c.R.

^Raetia

Table I(d): RAETIA/NORICUM
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
I Hispanorum Auriana
I Commagenorum
II Flavia
I Flavia gemina c.R.
I Flavia singularium
II Aquitanorum eq c.R.
I Asturum
II Batavorum
IX Batavorum eq
V Bracaraugustanorum
I Breucorum c.R.
V Breucorum c.R. eq
III Britannorum
I Aelia Brittonum
I Raetorum
II Raetorum
II Thracum
III Thracum c.R.
III Thracum veterana
IV Tungrorum veterana

I Flavia Canathenorum sagitt

^Pannonia

Table I(e): PANNONIA (Superior and Inferior)
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
I Hispanorum Aravacorum
I Flavia Britannica c.R.
I Brittonum c.R.
I Cananefatium
I civium Romanorum
I Augusta Ituraeorum
I Praetoria singularium c.R.
I Thracum victrix
II Augusta Thracum

I Ulpia contariorum
I Thracum veterana sagitt
III Augusta Thracum sagitt
I Alpinorum eq
I Alpinorum peditata
II Alpinorum eq
II Asturum et Callaecorum eq
III Batavorum eq
VII Breucorum c.R. eq
I Brittonum
V Callaecorum Lucensium eq
I Campanorum voluntariorum c.R.
II Augusta Dacorum eq
I Lusitanorum Cyrenaica
III Lusitanorum
I Montanorum eq
I Noricorum eq
I Ulpia Pannoniorum eq
I Thracum c.R.
I Thracum Germanica
I Thracum Syriaca equitata eq
II Augusta Thracum eq

I Aelia Caesariensis sagitt
I Aelia Gaesatorum sagitt

^Moesia Sup

Table I(f): MOESIA SUPERIOR
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
I Claudia nova miscellanea
Gallorum Flaviana
III Brittonum veterana eq
III campestris c.R.
V Gallorum eq
V Gallorum et Pannoniorum
V Hispanorum eq
I Pannoniorum veterana eq
I Antiochensium sagitt
I Cretum eq sagitt

^Moesia Inf

Table I(g): MOESIA INFERIOR
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
II Hispanorum Aravacorum
I Vespasiana Dardanorum
I Flavia Gaetulorum
Gallorum Atectorigiana
I Claudia Gallorum Capitoniana

I Gallorum et Pannoniorum cataphractaria
I Bracarorum c.R.
II Bracaraugustanorum eq
II Flavia Brittonum eq
I Lepidiana c.R.
II Lucensium
I Lusitanorum
II Mattiacorum eq
I Flavia Numidarum eq
I Sugambrorum tironum
I Claudia Sugambrorum veterana eq
I Thracum Syriaca

II Chalcidenorum sagitt
I Cilicum eq sagitt

^Dacia

Table I(h): DACIA (inc. Dacia Superior, Inferior and Porolissensis)
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES COHORTES
I Asturum

I Batavorum
I Bosporanorum
I Hispanorum Campagonum
I Gallorum et Bosporanorum
II Gallorum et Pannoniorum
I Hispanorum
II Pannoniorum
II Pannoniorum veterana
I Tungrorum Frontoniana

I Flavia Commagenorum sagitt
numerus equitum Illyricorum

I Afrorum c.R. eq
I Batavorum c.R.
II Flavia Bessorum
I Bracaraugustanorum
I Britannica c.R. eq
II Britannorum c.R.
I Flavia Brittonum eq
I Ulpia Brittonum
I Augusta Brittonum Nerviana
II Augusta Brittonum Nerviana
I Cananefatium
I Flavia Commagenorum
IV Baetica

I Cypria c.R.
II Gallorum
II Gallorum Dacica
II Gallorum Macedonica eq
II Gallorum Pannonica
III Gallorum
I Hispanorum
I Hispanorum veterana eq
I Flavia Ulpia Hispanorum c.R. eq
II Hispanorum scutata c.R.
IV Hispanorum eq
V Lingonum

II Flavia Numidarum
VIII Raetorum eq c.R.
VI Thracum eq
Ubiorum eq
I Ubiorum
I Vindelicorum c.R. eq

I Augusta Ituraerorum sagitt
I Thracum sagitt
I Tyriorum sagitt

^Cappadocia

Table I(i): CAPPADOCIA
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
II Ulpia Auriana
I Augusta gemina colonorum
I Ulpia Dacorum
II Gallorum
I Parthorum veterana
Apula c.R.
I Bosporanorum
I Claudia eq
II Claudia
I Hamiorum c.R.
I Italica voluntariorum c.R.
milliaria c.R. eq
I Numidarum
II Ulpia Petreorum eq
III Ulpia Petreorum eq
I Raetorum eq
IV Raetorum eq

III Augusta Cyrenaica sagitt

^Syria

Table I(j): SYRIA (inc. Judaea, Arabia Petraea)
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES COHORTES
I Flavia Agrippiana
II Flavia Agrippiana
Gaetulorum veterana
I Phrygum
VII Phrygum
I Ulpia singularium
I Thracum Herculanea
Augusta Xoitana

I Ulpia dromedariorum
Gallorum et Thracum Antiana sagitt
III Bracarum
IV Bracarugustanorum
III Callaecorum Bracarum
IV Callaecorum Lucensium
II Cantabrorum
II classica
I Ulpia Dacorum
III Dacorum
I Damascena Armeniaca
II equitum eq
II Ulpia equitatum eq
I Flavia
I Gaetulorum
I Ulpia Galatarum
II Ulpia Galatarum
VII Gallorum eq
V gemella c.R.
VI Hispanorum
II Ligurum et Corsorum
I Lucensium
I Augusta Lusitanorum
I Montanorum
I Augusta Pannoniorum
II Ulpia Paphlagonum
III Ulpia Paphlagonum eq
IV Ulpia Petreorum
V Ulpia Petreorum eq
VI Ulpia Petreorum
I Sebastena
I Thracum
III Augusta Thracum
II Thracum Syriaca
III Thracum Syriaca
IV Thracum Syriaca

I Ascalonitanorum sagitt
I Flavia Chalcidenorum eq sagitt
I Damascenorum sagitt
II Italica voluntariorum c.R. sagitt
I Ulpia Petreorum eq sagitt
I Ulpia c.R. sagitt
I Augusta Thracum eq sagitt

^Aegyptus

Table I(k): AEGYPTUS
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
Apriana
Augusta Syriaca
Commagenorum
Gallorum veterana
I Thracum Macedonica
Vocontiorum
I Ulpia Afrorum eq
I Flavia Cilicum eq
II Ituraeorum
III Ituraeorum
I Aug. praetoria Lusitanorum eq
I Macedonica eq
I Pannoniorum
I Thebaeorum eq
II Thebaeorum
scutata c.R.

I Apamenorum eq sagitt

^Mauretania

Table I(l) MAURETANIA (inc. Africa, Numidia, Caesariensis, Tingitana
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
III Asturum
I Augusta c.R.
I Augusta Gallorum
I Gallorum Tauriana victrix
Gemelliana c.R.
I Flavia Numidica
I Augusta Nerviana
I Pannoniorum
II Augusta Thracum

I Hamiorum sagitt
Parthorum sagitt
I Syrorum sagitt
II Syrorum sagitt
I Flavia Afrorum
II Flavia Afrorum
I Asturum et Callaecorum
III Asturum c.R. eq
II Breucorum
II Brittonum eq
I Chalcidenorum eq
VI Commagenorum eq
I Corsorum c.R.
V Delmatarum c.R.
Aelia expedita
I Flavia eq
III Gallorum felix
IV Gallorum c.R.
II Hamiorum
I Flavia Hispanorum
II Hispanorum c.R. eq
I Ituraeorum c.R.
I Lemavorum c.R.
VII Lusitanorum eq
I Flavia Musulamiorum eq
I Nurritanorum
II Sardorum
IV Sugambrorum
IV Tungrorum

I Syrorum sagitt
II Syrorum eq sagitt

^Internal

Table I(m) INTERNAL PROVINCES & UNKNOWN LOCATIONS
ALAE XXX COHORTES COHORTES
II Flavia Hispanorum (HISP) III Alpinorum eq (DLM)
I Aelia Athoitarum (THR)
I Ausetanorum (HISP?)
I Flavia Bessorum (MCD)
Callaecorum (?)
I Celtiberorum eq (HISP)
I Cisipadensium c.R. (THR)
Dacorum (?)
I Gallica c.R. eq (HISP)
I Delmatarum mill eq (DLM)
I Ligurum (AS?)
maritima (BAE)
Maurorum et Afrorum (?)
I Musulamiorum (LYC)
VI praetoria (BYT)
III sagittariorum (?)
I/II nova tironum (HISP)
VIII voluntariorum (DLM)
XXV voluntariorum (HISP?)

GLOSSARY OF NON-ETHNIC REGIMENTAL NAMES

NB: Where a regiment carries the name of a person (other than an imperial name, see below), e.g. ala Sulpicia, the name in most cases is that of the regiment's first, or early, praefectus (regimental commander). In the Augustan era, commanders of auxiliary units were often Roman legionary centurions, or native chieftains e.g. ala Gallorum Atectorigiana, which was probably once commanded by a Gallic chieftain named Atectorix. (Later, the emperor Claudius restricted auxiliary commands to Roman knights only).

(1) imperial dedications

  • Augusta: founded by emperor Augustus (r. 30 BC - AD 14), or honoured with this title by any of his successors
  • Claudia: founded by, or honoured by, one of: Tiberius (r.14-37), Caligula (37-41) or Claudius (41-54), all of whom were members of the Claudii clan
  • Flavia: Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus r.69-79) or one of his two sons and successors, Titus (79-81) or Domitian (81-96)
  • Ulpia: Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Traianus r.98-117)
  • Aelia: Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus r.117-138)
  • Aurelia: Marcus Aurelius (r.161-180)
  • Septimia: Septimius Severus (r.197-211)

N.B. In the 4th century, Valeria referred to emperor Diocletian (Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus, r.284-305) and Flavia to Constantine I (Flavius Valerius Constantinus, r.312-337) or some of his successors.

(2) names of regiments originally raised by the emperor Augustus during the Illyrian revolt crisis (AD 6-9) from Roman citizens not admissible to legions (i.e. vagrants, convicts, debtors and freed slaves):

  • civium Romanorum: regiment originally composed of Roman citizens (inc freed slaves)
  • ingenuorum: regiment originally free-born (ingenui) Roman citizens
  • voluntariorum: regiment originally volunteers (voluntarii), in reality slaves freed in return for military service during the Illyrian revolt crisis

PS: After their initial recruitment of Roman citizens, these regiments recruited non-citizens (peregrini) like all other regiments.

(3) other non-ethnic regimental names:

  • classica: the regiment was originally recruited, probably in the Illyrian emergency, from naval personnel (from classis = "fleet"), who were mostly non-citizens. Also nauticarum (from nautae= "sailors") and maritima.
  • praetoria: originally a cohort of the Praetorian Guard in Rome. Apparently a detachment of the cohort was left behind at the end of an imperial campaign, presumably to form the core of a new auxiliary cohort, retaining the prestigious name.
  • singularium: ala formed around members of the elite equites singulares Augusti (imperial horseguards), left behind to reinforce frontier at the end of an imperial campaign.
  • contariorum: specialised regiment of lancers (contarii) from contus (a long lance)
  • dromedariorum: specialised regiment of camel-mounted troops for desert warfare

(4) regimental epithets:

  • civium Romanorum (c.R. for short): title awarded by the emperor to a regiment for signal valour. All current (but not future) members would be granted Roman citizenship, and the regiment would retain the title in perpetuity.
  • veterana: uncertain meaning: may have been used to distinguish older unit from a newer unit with the same serial number and name
  • tironum: from tirones ("trainees")

Read more about this topic:  List Of Roman Auxiliary Regiments

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