History of natural language processing
- History of machine translation
- History of automated essay scoring
- History of natural language user interface
- History of natural language understanding
- History of optical character recognition
- History of question answering
- History of speech synthesis
- Turing test – test of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behavior, equivalent to or indistinguishable from, that of an actual human. In the original illustrative example, a human judge engages in a natural language conversation with a human and a machine designed to generate performance indistinguishable from that of a human being. All participants are separated from one another. If the judge cannot reliably tell the machine from the human, the machine is said to have passed the test. The test was introduced by Alan Turing in his 1950 paper "Computing Machinery and Intelligence," which opens with the words: "I propose to consider the question, 'Can machines think?'"
- Universal grammar – theory in linguistics, usually credited to Noam Chomsky, proposing that the ability to learn grammar is hard-wired into the brain. The theory suggests that linguistic ability manifests itself without being taught (see poverty of the stimulus), and that there are properties that all natural human languages share. It is a matter of observation and experimentation to determine precisely what abilities are innate and what properties are shared by all languages.
- ALPAC – was a committee of seven scientists led by John R. Pierce, established in 1964 by the U. S. Government in order to evaluate the progress in computational linguistics in general and machine translation in particular. Its report, issued in 1966, gained notoriety for being very skeptical of research done in machine translation so far, and emphasizing the need for basic research in computational linguistics; this eventually caused the U. S. Government to reduce its funding of the topic dramatically.
- Conceptual dependency theory – a model of natural language understanding used in artificial intelligence systems. Roger Schank at Stanford University introduced the model in 1969, in the early days of artificial intelligence. This model was extensively used by Schank's students at Yale University such as Robert Wilensky, Wendy Lehnert, and Janet Kolodner.
- Augmented transition network – type of graph theoretic structure used in the operational definition of formal languages, used especially in parsing relatively complex natural languages, and having wide application in artificial intelligence. Introduced by William A. Woods in 1970.
- Distributed Language Translation (project) –
Read more about this topic: List Of Natural Language Processing Toolkits
... Petroleum and natural gas are formed by the anaerobic decomposition of remains of organisms including phytoplankton and zooplankton that settled to the sea (or lake) bottom in large quantities under ... Some fuels like natural gas, for instance, contain only very low boiling, gaseous components ... date to the Carboniferous period of Earth's history ...
... Natural capital is the extension of the economic notion of capital (manufactured means of production) to goods and services relating to the natural environment ... Natural capital is thus the stock of natural ecosystems that yields a flow of valuable ecosystem goods or services into the future ... Natural capital may also provide services like recycling wastes or water catchment and erosion control ...
... Ukraine is relatively rich in natural resources, particularly in mineral deposits ... Although oil and natural gas reserves in the country are largely exhausted, it has other important energy sources, such as coal, hydroelectricity and nuclear fuel raw materials ...
... SHRDLU 1970 Terry Winograd a natural language system working in restricted "blocks worlds" with restricted vocabularies, worked extremely well PARRY 1972 Kenneth Colby A chatterbot KL-ONE 1974 ... representation system in the tradition of semantic networks and frames it is a frame language ... QUALM Lehnert LIFER/LADDER 1978 Hendrix a natural language interface to a database of information about US Navy ships ...
... Public authorities should oppose laws which undermine natural law scientists should further study effective methods of natural birth control doctors ... closes with an appeal to observe the natural laws of the Most High God ...
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