Lactoperoxidase - Clinical Significance - Innate Immune System

Innate Immune System

Lactoperoxidase is an oxidoreductase secreted from salivary, mammary, and other mucosal glands that functions as a natural antibacterial agent. Hence it plays an important role in the immune defence system.

Hypothiocyanite is one of the reactive intermediates produced by the activity of lactoperoxidase on thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxyde produced by Dual oxidase 2 proteins, also known as Duox2. Thiocyanate secretion in cystic fibrosis patients is decreased resulting in a reduced production of the antimicrobial hypothiocyanite and consequently contributes to the increased risk of airway infection.

The lactoperoxidase system efficiently inhibited helicobacter pylori in buffer, however, in whole human saliva, it had a weaker antibacterial effect. The lactoperoxidase system did not attack DNA and was not mutagenic for any of the tested strains. However, under certain conditions, the lactoperoxidase system may contribute to oxidative stress. It has been shown that lactoperoxidase in the presence of thiocyanate can trigger the bactericidal and cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide under specific conditions, such as when hydrogen peroxide is present in the reaction mixtures in excess of thiocyanate.

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