Jicarilla Apache refers to the members of the Jicarilla Apache Nation currently living in New Mexico and speaking a Southern Athabaskan language. The term jicarilla comes from Mexican Spanish meaning "little basket." Their autonym is Tinde or Dinde, meaning "the People." To neighboring Apache bands like the Mescalero and Lipan they were known as Kinya-Inde ("People who live in fixed houses"). The Jicarilla called themselves also Haisndayin translated as "people who came from below", because they believed to be the sole descendants of the first people to emerge from the underworld, the abode of Ancestral Man and Ancestral Woman who produced the first people.
The Jicarilla Apache lived in a semi-nomadic existence in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and plains of southern Colorado, northern New Mexico and ranged into the Great Plains starting before 1525 CE. They lived a relatively peaceful life for years, traveling seasonally to traditional hunting, gathering and cultivation along river beds. The Jicarilla learned about farming and pottery from the Puebloan peoples and learned about survival on the plains from the Plains Indians and had a rich and varied diet and lifestyle. Starting in the 1700s Colonial New Spain, pressure from other Native American tribes, like the Comanches, and later westward expansion of the United States resulted in significant loss of property, removal from their sacred lands, and relocation to lands not suited for survival.
The mid 1800s until the mid 1900s were particularly difficult as tribal bands were displaced, treaties made and broken, subject to significant loss of death due to tuberculosis and other diseases, and lack of opportunities for survival. By 1887 they received their reservation, which was expanded in 1907 to include land more conducive to ranching and agriculture, and within several decades realized the rich natural resources of the San Juan Basin under the reservation land.
Tribal members transitioned from a semi-nomadic lifestyle and are now supported by their oil and gas, casino gaming, forestry, ranching and tourism industries on the reservation. The Jicarilla continue to be known for their pottery, basketry and beadwork.
Other articles related to "jicarilla apache":
... Born in Blanco, New Mexico, Tammy Allen belongs to the Jicarilla Apache tribe, specifically, the Ollero Clan (Mountain People) ... She is a direct descendant of Jicarilla Apache chiefs and Chief Ouray of the Ute Tribe, who was instrumental in helping establish the Jicarilla Apache reservation ... pottery artist, that is, she does not come from a long line of Jicarilla Apache potters ...
Famous quotes containing the word apache:
“The Apache have a legend that the coyote brought them fire and that the bear in his hibernations communes with the spirits of the overworld and later imparts the wisdom gained thereby to the medicine men.”
—Administration in the State of Arizona, U.S. public relief program (1935-1943)