Javanese Language - Dialects of Modern Javanese

Dialects of Modern Javanese

There are three main groups of Javanese dialects, based on sub-regions: Western Javanese, Central Javanese, and Eastern Javanese. The differences are primarily in pronunciation, but with vocabulary differences also. Javanese dialects are all mutually intelligible.

Central Javanese (Jawa Tengahan) is founded on the speech of Surakarta and to a lesser extent of Yogyakarta. It is considered the most "refined" of the regional variants, and serves as a model for the standard language. Those two cities are the seats of four Javanese principalities (heirs to the Mataram Sultanate) that once dominated the whole of Java and beyond. This variant is used throughout Central Java province, and there are many lower-level dialects such as Muria and Semarangan, as well as Surakarta and Yogyakarta themselves. There are also dialects such as Pekalongan or Dialek Pantura, and Kebumen (a variation of Banyumasan). The variations in Central Java are said to be so plentiful that almost every administrative region (or kabupaten) has its own local slang; but those minor dialects are not seen as distinct by most Javanese speakers.

Central Javanese is also used in the western part of East Java province. For example, Javanese spoken in the Madiun region (along with Javanese spoken in Blitar, Ponorogo, Pacitan, and Tulungagung) bears a strong influence of Surakarta Javanese.

  1. Pekalongan dialect is spoken in Pekalongan and Pekalongan regency, and also in Pemalang.
  2. Kedu dialect is spoken in the former Kedu residency, and in Temanggung, Kebumen, Magelang, and Wonosobo.
  3. Bagelen dialect is spoken in Purworejo.
  4. Semarang dialect is spoken in Semarang, Semarang regency, and also Salatiga, Demak and Kendal.
  5. Eastern North-Coast dialect, or dialek Muria, is spoken in Jepara, Rembang, Kudus, Pati, and also in Tuban and Bojonegoro.
  6. Blora dialect is spoken in Blora, the eastern part of Grobogan, and the western part of Ngawi.
  7. Surakarta dialect is spoken commonly in Surakarta, Karanganyar, Wonogiri, Sukoharjo, and Boyolali.
  8. Yogyakarta dialect is spoken in Yogyakarta and Klaten.
  9. Madiun dialect is spoken in East Java province, including Madiun, Ngawi, Pacitan, Ponorogo, and Magetan.

Western Javanese (Jawa Kulonan), spoken in the western part of the Central Java province and throughout the West Java province (particularly on the north coast), includes dialects that are distinct for their Sundanese influences. It retains many archaic words.

  1. North Banten dialect (Jawa Serang) is spoken in Serang, Cilegon, and the western part of Tangerang regency.
  2. Cirebon dialect (Cirebonan or Basa Cerbon) is spoken in Cirebon and Losari. Indramayu dialect (or Dermayon), which is spoken in Indramayu, Karawang, and Subang, is sometimes included in Cirebonan.
  3. Tegal dialect, known as Tegalan or Dialek Pantura (North-Coast dialect), is spoken in Tegal, Brebes, and the western part of Pemalang regency.
  4. Banyumas dialect, known as Banyumasan, is spoken in Banyumas, Cilacap, Purbalingga, Banjarnegara, and Bumiayu.

These Western Javanese dialects are sometimes called as basa ngapak-apak by other Javanese.

Eastern Javanese (Jawa Wetanan) speakers range from the eastern banks of Brantas River in Kertosono, and from Nganjuk to Banyuwangi, comprising the majority of the East Java province excluding Madura island. However, the variant has been influenced by Madurese, and is sometimes referred to as Surabayan speech.

The most outlying Eastern Javanese dialect is spoken in Balambangan (or Banyuwangi). It is generally known as Basa Osing. Osing, a local negation word, is a cognate of tusing in Balinese. (This area of Java has the island of Bali immediately to the east, and was formerly under the control of Balinese kings and warlords.)

  1. Surabaya dialect (Suroboyoan) is commonly spoken in Surabaya, Gresik, and Sidoarjo. Many Madurese people also use this dialect as their second language.
  2. Malang dialect is spoken in Malang and Malang regency, and also in Mojokerto.
  3. Jombang dialect.
  4. Tengger dialect, used by Tenggerese people.
  5. Banyuwangi dialect (Basa Osing).

In addition to these three main variants, there is Surinamese Javanese, which is mainly based on Central Javanese, especially from the Kedu residency.

Read more about this topic:  Javanese Language

Other articles related to "dialects of modern javanese, javanese, dialect":

Javanese Language - Dialects of Modern Javanese - Vocabulary Differences
... The vocabulary of standard Javanese is enriched by dialectal words ... For example, to get the meaning of "you", Western Javanese speakers say rika /rikaʔ/, Eastern Javanese use kon /kɔn/ or koen /kɔən/, and Central Javanese ... Another example is the expression of "how" the Tegal dialect of Western Javanese uses kepribèn /kəpriben/, the Banyumasan dialect of Western Javanese ...

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