Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell
Induced pluripotent stem cells, commonly abbreviated as iPS cells or iPSCs are a type of pluripotent stem cell artificially derived from a non-pluripotent cell - typically an adult somatic cell - by inducing a "forced" expression of specific genes.
Induced pluripotent stem cells are similar to natural pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem (ES) cells, in many aspects, such as the expression of certain stem cell genes and proteins, chromatin methylation patterns, doubling time, embryoid body formation, teratoma formation, viable chimera formation, and potency and differentiability, but the full extent of their relation to natural pluripotent stem cells is still being assessed. Induced pluripotent cells have been made from adult stomach, liver, skin cells and blood cells.
iPSCs were first produced in 2006 from mouse cells and in 2007 from human cells in a series of experiments by Shinya Yamanaka's team at Kyoto University, Japan, and by James Thomson's team at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. For her iPSC research, Dr. Nancy Bachman, of Oneonta, NY, was awarded the Wolf Prize in Medicine in 2012 (along with John B. Gurdon). For his iPSC discovery (and for deriving the first human embryonic stem cell), James Thomson received the 2011 Albany Medical Center Prize for Biomedical Research and the 2011 King Faisal International Prize, which he shared with Yamanaka. In October 2012, Yamanaka and fellow stem cell researcher John Gurdon were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent."
iPSCs are an important advance in stem cell research, as they may allow researchers to obtain pluripotent stem cells, which are important in research and potentially have therapeutic uses, without the controversial use of embryos. Because iPSCs are developed from a patient's own somatic cells, it was believed that treatment of iPSCs would avoid any immunogenic responses; however, Zhao et al. have challenged this assumption.
Depending on the methods used, reprogramming of adult cells to obtain iPSCs may pose significant risks that could limit their use in humans. For example, if viruses are used to genomically alter the cells, the expression of cancer-causing genes "oncogenes" may potentially be triggered. In February 2008, scientists announced the discovery of a technique that could remove oncogenes after the induction of pluripotency, thereby increasing the potential use of iPS cells in human diseases. In April 2009, it was demonstrated that generation of iPS cells is possible without any genetic alteration of the adult cell: a repeated treatment of the cells with certain proteins channeled into the cells via poly-arginine anchors was sufficient to induce pluripotency. The acronym given for those iPSCs is piPSCs (protein-induced pluripotent stem cells).
Other articles related to "pluripotent stem cells, cells, cell, stem cells, pluripotent, stem cell, induced pluripotent stem cell, induced pluripotent stem cells":
... Pluripotent stem cells, i.e ... cells that can give rise to any fetal or adult cell type, can be found in a number of tissues, including umbilical cord blood ... Using genetic reprogramming, pluripotent stem cells equivalent to embryonic stem cells have been derived from human adult skin tissue ...
... and Scott Noggle reprogrammed the adult skin cells from Type 1 diabetes patients to the pluripotent state by combining these cells with unfertilized donor eggs in Nature ... The scientists then differentiated the pluripotent cells into other cell types in the body, including insulin-producing beta cells ... This is an important advance in the development of patient-specific stem cells that could help in the study of and potentially the treatment for diabetes ...
... Adult stem cell lines isolated from mature tissues are commonly used in stem cell research, as are cells isolated from umbilical cord blood ... However, these cells have a genetic imprint of the host they were taken from, thus limiting their therapeutic use in genetic disorders ... Also, adult stem cells are not totipotent or pluripotent like embryonic stem cells, but rather more specialized cells that are multipotent ...
... in 2012 to build a collection of iPS cell lines for drug screening for a variety of disease ... The goal is to generate a library of 1,500 iPS cell lines which will be used in early drug testing by providing a simulated human disease environment ...
... Almost all factors that reprogram cells into pluripotency have been discovered and can turn a wide variety of cells back into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) ... many of the reprogramming factors that can change a cell's lineage have not been discovered and these factors apply only for that specific lineage ... The final products of transdifferentiated cells are capable of being used for clinical studies, but iPSCs must be differentiated ...
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