Interaction Via TLR4
Among the receptors of amphoterin includes toll-like receptors. Interaction of HMGB1 and TLR4 results in upregulation of NF-kappa B, which leads to increased production and an release of cytokines in macrophages and in neutrophils for example stimulates release ROS via TLR-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase. HMGB1-LPS complex activates TLR4, and leads to binding adapter proteins (MyD88 and others), which leads to signal transduction and activate signaling cascades. In the last line leads to activation of MAPK cascades and NF-kapa B and thus to the production of cytokines and other inflammatory molecules.
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—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)