History of Scientific Method - Integrating Deductive and Inductive Method - Charles Sanders Peirce

Charles Sanders Peirce

In the late 19th century, Charles Sanders Peirce proposed a schema that would turn out to have considerable influence in the further development of scientific method generally. Peirce's work quickly accelerated the progress on several fronts. Firstly, speaking in broader context in "How to Make Our Ideas Clear" (1878), Peirce outlined an objectively verifiable method to test the truth of putative knowledge on a way that goes beyond mere foundational alternatives, focusing upon both Deduction and Induction. He thus placed induction and deduction in a complementary rather than competitive context (the latter of which had been the primary trend at least since David Hume a century before). Secondly, and of more direct importance to scientific method, Peirce put forth the basic schema for hypothesis-testing that continues to prevail today. Extracting the theory of inquiry from its raw materials in classical logic, he refined it in parallel with the early development of symbolic logic to address the then-current problems in scientific reasoning. Peirce examined and articulated the three fundamental modes of reasoning that play a role in scientific inquiry today, the processes that are currently known as abductive, deductive, and inductive inference. Thirdly, he played a major role in the progress of symbolic logic itself – indeed this was his primary specialty.

Charles S. Peirce was also a pioneer in statistics. Peirce held that science achieves statistical probabilities, not certainties, and that chance, a veering from law, is very real. He assigned probability to an argument’s conclusion rather than to a proposition, event, etc., as such. Most of his statistical writings promote the frequency interpretation of probability (objective ratios of cases), and many of his writings express skepticism about (and criticize the use of) probability when such models are not based on objective randomization. Though Peirce was largely a frequentist, his possible world semantics introduced the "propensity" theory of probability. Peirce (sometimes with Jastrow) investigated the probability judgments of experimental subjects, pioneering decision analysis.

Peirce was one of the founders of statistics. He formulated modern statistics in "Illustrations of the Logic of Science" (1877–1878) and "A Theory of Probable Inference" (1883). With a repeated measures design, he introduced blinded, controlled randomized experiments (before Fisher). He invented an optimal design for experiments on gravity, in which he "corrected the means". He used logistic regression, correlation, and smoothing, and improved the treatment of outliers. He introduced terms "confidence" and "likelihood" (before Neyman and Fisher). (See the historical books of Stephen Stigler.) Many of Peirce's ideas were later popularized and developed by Ronald A. Fisher, Jerzy Neyman, Frank P. Ramsey, Bruno de Finetti, and Karl Popper.

Read more about this topic:  History Of Scientific Method, Integrating Deductive and Inductive Method

Other articles related to "charles sanders peirce, peirce, charles":

Charles Sanders Peirce - Science of Review
... Main article Classification of the sciences (Peirce) Peirce outlined two fields, "Cenoscopy" and "Science of Review", both of which he called philosophy ... Peirce placed, within Science of Review, the work and theory of classifying the sciences (including mathematics and philosophy) ...
Charles Sanders Peirce Bibliography - Secondary Literature - Other Works
... Peirce, Springer catalog page, 192 pages, hardcover (ISBN 978-9024735747, ISBN 90-247-3574-2). 1995), "Peirce Rustled, Russell Pierced How Charles Peirce and Bertrand Russell Viewed Each Other's Work in Logic, and an Assessment of Russell's Accuracy and Role in the Historiography of Logic", Modern Logic ... Arisbe Eprint (1997), "Tarski's Development of Peirce's Logic of Relations" (Google Books Eprint), in Studies in the Logic of Charles Sanders Peirce, Indiana University Press ...
Charles Sanders Peirce Bibliography
... This Charles Sanders Peirce bibliography consolidates numerous references to Charles Sanders Peirce's writings, including letters, manuscripts, publications, and Nachlass ... For an extensive chronological list of Peirce's works (titled in English), see the Chronologische Übersicht (Chronological Overview) on the Schriften (Writings) page for Charles Sanders Peirce ...
Charles Sanders Peirce Bibliography - Secondary Literature - Anthologies and Journals' Special Issues
1965), Perspectives on Peirce Critical Essays on Charles Sanders Peirce, Yale University Press, 148 pages (ISBN 0300003080), reprinted, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 148 pages ... Amazon lists Peirce as author and Bernstein as editor, but it appears to be an anthology of essays about Peirce ... Peirce Categories to Constantinople Proceedings of the International Symposium on Peirce Leuven 1997, Leuven University Press, 154 pages, paperback (ISBN 978-9061869399, ISBN 90-6186-939-0), LUP ...

Famous quotes containing the words charles sanders peirce, sanders peirce, peirce and/or sanders:

    If an opinion can eventually go to the determination of a practical belief, it, in so far, becomes itself a practical belief; and every proposition that is not pure metaphysical jargon and chatter must have some possible bearing upon practice.
    Charles Sanders Peirce (1839–1914)

    Consider what effects which might conceivably have practical bearings we conceive the object of our conception to have. Then our conception of these effects is the whole of our conception of the object.
    —Charles Sanders Peirce (1839–1914)

    ... metaphysics, even bad metaphysics, really rests on observations, whether consciously or not; and the only reason that this is not universally recognized is that it rests upon kinds of phenomena with which every man’s experience is so saturated that he pays no particular attention to them.
    —Charles Sanders Peirce (1839–1914)

    Theology, I am persuaded, derives its initial impulse from a religious wavering; for there is quite as much, or more, that is mysterious and calculated to awaken scientific curiosity in the intercourse with God, and it [is] a problem quite analogous to that of theology.
    —Charles Sanders Peirce (1839–1914)