History of Medicine - World Wars

World Wars

The 20th century witnessed a shift from a master-apprentice paradigm of teaching of clinical medicine to a more "democratic" system of medical schools. With the advent of the evidence-based medicine and great advances of information technology the process of change is likely to evolve further, with greater development of international projects such as the Human genome project.

During the 20th century, large-scale wars were attended with medics and mobile hospital units which developed advanced techniques for healing massive injuries and controlling infections rampant in battlefield conditions. Thousands of scarred troops provided the need for improved prosthetic limbs and expanded techniques in plastic surgery or reconstructive surgery. Those practices were combined to broaden cosmetic surgery and other forms of elective surgery.

During the First World War, Alexis Carrel and Henry Dakin developed the Carrel-Dakin method of treating wounds with an irrigation, Dakin's solution, a germicide which helped prevent gangrene.

The Great War spurred the usage of Roentgen's X-ray, and the electrocardiograph, for the monitoring of internal bodily functions. This was followed in the inter-war period by the development of the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics. The Second World War saw the introduction of widespread and effective antimicrobial therapy with the development and mass production of penicillin antibiotics, made possible by the pressures of the war and the collaboration of British scientists with the American pharmaceutical industry.

The 1918 flu pandemic killed at least 50 million people around the world, and has become an important case study in epidemiology, see Spanish flu research.

Human subject research, and killing of patients with disabilities, were at its height during the mid-20th century, with Nazi human experimentation and Aktion T4 during the Holocaust as the most significant example, followed up by the Doctors' Trial. Principles of medical ethics, such as the Nuremberg Code, have been introduced to prevent atrocities.

During and just after World War II, DDT was used as insecticide to combat insect vectors carrying malaria and typhus.

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Other articles related to "world wars, world war, war, world":

William Guy Carr - Main Theories - The Three World Wars
... theory was his discussion of an alleged plan for Three World Wars (often referred as the 3WW), which he believed was developed by Confederate general and Masonic scholar Albert Pike ... In Pawns in the Game, Carr claims that the First World War was fought so as to enable the Illuminati to overthrow the powers of the Tsars in Russia and turn that country into the ... and German Empires were used to foment this war ...
Military History Of Liberia - History - World Wars
... Liberia joined the Allies in both World War I and World War II, but the only troops dispatched overseas were a few individuals to France during World War I, and Liberian ... assistance for the LFF began during World War II, when funding provided by the United States allowed an increase in the Force's strength to around 1,500 ... forces also established an officer candidate school during the later part of the war, using instructors selected from the American troops in the country ...
Human Rights - History of Concept
... According to Jack Donnelly, in the ancient world, "traditional societies typically have had elaborate systems of duties.. ... of the peasants' demands raised towards the Swabian League in the German Peasants' War in Germany ... reasons for the southern states' secession and the American Civil War ...
Catholic Peace Traditions - Contemporary Catholicism (c.1965 – ) - United States - World Wars
... With the twentieth century and World War I, American Catholics began to emerge from their isolation ... There was little Catholic protest against World War I, although Ben Salmon was a notable exception ... Ben Salmon was a conscientious objector during the war and outspoken critic of Just War theology ...
Mocsa - World Wars
... Five hundred and thirty soldiers from Mocsa took part in World War I ... In World War II, there were seven hundred and forty soldiers from the village, two hundred and fifteen who were killed ...

Famous quotes containing the words wars and/or world:

    Probably the battle of Waterloo was won on the playing-fields of Eton, but the opening battles of all subsequent wars have been lost there.
    George Orwell (1903–1950)

    Interpretation is the revenge of the intellect upon art. Even more. It is the revenge of the intellect upon the world. To interpret is to impoverish, to deplete the world—in order to set up a shadow world of “meanings.”
    Susan Sontag (b. 1933)