History of Medicine - Post-World War II - Modern Surgery

Modern Surgery

Cardiac surgery was revolutionized in the late 1940s, as open-heart surgery was introduced.

In 1954 Joseph Murray, J. Hartwell Harrison, M.D. and others accomplished the first kidney transplantation. Transplantations of other organs, such as heart, liver and pancreas, were also introduced during the latter 20th century. The first partial face transplant was performed in 2005, and the first full one in 2010. By the end of the 20th century, microtechnology had been used to create tiny robotic devices to assist microsurgery using micro-video and fiber-optic cameras to view internal tissues during surgery with minimally invasive practices.

Laparoscopic surgery was broadly introduced in the 1990s. Natural orifice surgery has followed.

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History - Modern Surgery
... Modern surgery developed rapidly with the scientific era ... Paré (sometimes spelled "Ambrose") pioneered the treatment of gunshot wounds, and the first modern surgeons were battlefield doctors in the Napoleonic Wars ... Naval surgeons were often barber surgeons, who combined surgery with their main jobs as barbers ...

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