History of Azerbaijan - Azerbaijan Democratic Republic

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic

At the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917, an independent republic was proclaimed in Ganja on May 28, 1918 following an abortive attempt to establish a federal Transcaucasian Republic with Armenia and Georgia. This was the first Democratic Republic established in Islamic World. In Baku, however, a coalition of Bolsheviks, Dashnaks and Mensheviks fought against a Turkish-Islamic army led by Nuru Pasha. This coalition known as the "Baku Commune" also inspired or tacitly condoned the massacres of local Muslims by well-armed Dashnak-Armenian forces. This coalition, however, collapsed and was replaced by a British-controlled government known as Central Caspian Dictatorship in July 1918. British forces under General Dunsterville occupied Baku and helped the mainly Dashnak-Armenian forces to defend the capital. However, Baku fell on September 15, 1918 and an Azeri-Ottoman army entered the capital, causing British forces and much of the Armenian population to flee. At that time, massacres of ethnic Armenians took place. The Ottoman Empire, however, capitulated on October 30, 1918 and the British occupational force re-entered Baku.

Azerbaijan was proclaimed a secular republic and its first parliament opened on December 5, 1918. British administration initially did not recognize the Republic but tacitly cooperated with it. By mid-1919 the situation in Azerbaijan had more or less stabilized, and British forces left in August 1919. However by early 1920, advancing Bolshevik forces, victorious in Russian Civil War, started to pose a great threat to young republic, which also engaged in a conflict with Armenia over the Karabakh.

Azerbaijan received de facto recognition by the Allies as an independent nation in January 1920 at the Versailles Paris Peace Conference. The republic was governed by five cabinets, all formed by a coalition of the Musavat and other parties including the Socialist Bloc, the Independents, the Liberals, the Social-Democratic Party Hummat (or Endeavor) Party and the Conservative Ittihad (Union) Party. The premier in the first three cabinets was Fatali Khan Khoyski; in the last two, Nasib Yusifbeyli. The president of the parliament, Alimardan Topchubashev, was recognized as the head of state. In this capacity he represented Azerbaijan at the Versailles Paris Peace Conference in 1919.

Aided by Azeri dissidents in the Republican government, the Red Army invaded Azerbaijan on April 28, 1920. The bulk of the newly formed Azerbaijani army was engaged in putting down an Armenian revolt that had just broken out in Karabakh. The Azeris did not surrender their brief independence of 1918–20 quickly or easily. As many as 20,000 died resisting what was effectively a Russian reconquest. However, it has to be noticed that the installation of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic was made easier by the fact that there was a certain popular support for Bolshevik ideology in Azerbaijan, in particular among the industrial workers in Baku. The same day a Soviet government was formed under Nariman Narimanov. Before the year was over, the same fate had befallen Armenia, and, in March 1921, Georgia as well.

Read more about this topic:  History Of Azerbaijan

Other articles related to "democratic, azerbaijan democratic republic, azerbaijan, republic":

Hubert Humphrey
... Humphrey twice served as a United States Senator from Minnesota, and served as Democratic Majority Whip ... He was a founder of the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party and Americans for Democratic Action ... Humphrey was the nominee of the Democratic Party in the 1968 presidential election but lost to the Republican nominee, Richard Nixon ...
Military History Of Azerbaijan - After 20th Century - Azerbaijan Democratic Republic - Navy
... its warship, in the Caspian Sea - a former Russian vessel, to the newly independent Azerbaijan ...
List Of Azerbaijanis - Azerbaijan - Politicians
... Abulfaz Elchibey — president of Azerbaijan (1992–1993) ... Ayaz Mutalibov — First Secretary of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan SSR (1990), the first president of Azerbaijan (1990–1992) ... general Governor proclaimed in 1918 the Republic of Araks ...
Postage Stamps And Postal History Of Azerbaijan - Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
... The first stamps of Azerbaijan were issued in 1919 by the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and consisted of a set of ten pictorial designs to 50r ...
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic - Maps
... Map of Treaty of Sèvres showing the Azerbaijani Republic Map of the first Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and the territories it claimed A map showing ...

Famous quotes containing the words republic and/or democratic:

    Who is this Renaissance? Where did he come from? Who gave him permission to cram the Republic with his execrable daubs?
    Mark Twain [Samuel Langhorne Clemens] (1835–1910)

    The Democratic Party is like a mule. It has neither pride of ancestry nor hope of posterity.
    Ignatius Donnelly (1831–1901)