Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+. The free energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy compounds ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).

Glycolysis is a definite sequence of ten reactions involving ten intermediate compounds (one of the steps involves two intermediates). The intermediates provide entry points to glycolysis. For example, most monosaccharides, such as fructose, glucose, and galactose, can be converted to one of these intermediates. The intermediates may also be directly useful. For example, the intermediate dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) is a source of the glycerol that combines with fatty acids to form fat.

It occurs, with variations, in nearly all organisms, both aerobic and anaerobic. The wide occurrence of glycolysis indicates that it is one of the most ancient known metabolic pathways. It occurs in the cytosol of the cell.

The most common type of glycolysis is the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP pathway), which was first discovered by Gustav Embden, Otto Meyerhof, and Jakub Karol Parnas. Glycolysis also refers to other pathways, such as the Entner–Doudoroff pathway and various heterofermentative and homofermentative pathways. However, the discussion here will be limited to the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway.

The entire glycolysis pathway can be separated into two phases:

  1. The Preparatory Phase - in which ATP is consumed and is hence also known as the investment phase
  2. The Pay Off Phase - in which ATP is produced.

Read more about Glycolysis:  Overview, Elucidation of The Pathway, Sequence of Reactions, Regulation, Post-glycolysis Processes, Alternative Nomenclature

Other articles related to "glycolysis":

Pasteur Effect - Explanation
... While the oxygen concentration is low, the product of glycolysis, (pyruvate), is turned into ethanol and carbon dioxide, and the energy production efficiency is low (2 moles of ATP per mole of glucose) ... When exposed to aerobic conditions, the ATP production increases and the rate of glycolysis slows, because the ATP produced acts as an allosteric inhibitor for phosphofructokinase 1, the third enzyme in the ...
... acid, which for a long time, has been known to inhibit aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells ... It seems to enhance aerobic glycolysis in normal cells, but suppress glycolysis in cancer cells ... tumor cells showed that lonidamine inhibits both respiration and glycolysis leading to a decrease in cellular ATP ...
Glucose-1,6-bisphosphate Synthase - Metabolic Significance of The Catalyzed Reaction
... inhibition of hexokinase, an enzyme used in the first step of glycolysis ... acts as a coenzyme for phosphoglucomutase in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis ... dephosphorylation yields glucose-6-phosphate, which is an important precursor molecule in glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway ...
Glycolysis - Alternative Nomenclature
... Some of the metabolites in glycolysis have alternative names and nomenclature ... In part, this is because some of them are common to other pathways, such as the Calvin cycle This article Alternative names Alternative nomenclature 1 glucose Glc dextrose 3 fructose 6-phosphate F6P 4 fructose 1,6-bisphosphate F1,6BP fructose 1,6-diphosphate FBP, FDP, F1,6DP 5 dihydroxyacetone phosphate DHAP glycerone phosphate 6 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate GADP 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde PGAL, G3P, GALP,GAP,TP 7 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate 1,3BPG glycerate 1,3-bisphosphate, glycerate 1,3-diphosphate, 1,3-diphosphoglycerate PGAP, BPG, DPG 8 3-phosphoglycerate 3PG glycerate 3-phosphate PGA, GP 9 2-phosphoglycerate 2PG glycerate 2-phosphate 10 phosphoenolpyruvate PEP 11 pyruvate Pyr pyruvic acid ...
Plant Respiration - Aerobic Respiration - Glycolysis
... Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway that takes place in the cytosol of cells in all living organisms ... During the pay-off phase of glycolysis, four phosphate groups are transferred to ADP by substrate-level phosphorylation to make four ATP, and two NADH are ...