Gluten Immunochemistry - Taming Triticeae Immunochemistry

Taming Triticeae Immunochemistry

New immunogenic motifs appear in the literature almost monthly and new gliadin and Triticeae protein sequences appear that contain these motifs. The HLA DQ2.5 restricted peptide "I I Q P Q Q P A Q" produced approximately 50 hits of identical sequences in NCBI-Blast search is one of a several dozen known motifs whereas only a small fraction of Triticeae gluten variants have been examined. For this reason the immunochemistry is best discussed at the level of Triticeae, because it is clear that the special immunological properties of the proteins appear to have basal affinities to this taxa, appearing concentrated in wheat as a result of its three various genomes. Some current studies claim that removing the toxicity of gliadins from wheat as plausible, but, as the above illustrates, the problem is monumental. There are many gluten proteins, 3 genomes with many genes each for alpha, gamma, and omega gliadins. For each motif many genome-loci are present, and there are many motifs, some still not known. Different strains of triticeae exist for different industrial applications; durum for pasta and food pastes, 2 types of barley for beer, bread wheats used in different areas with different growing conditions. Replacing these motifs is not a plausible task since a contamination of 0.02% wheat in a GF diet is considered to be pathogenic and would require replacing motifs in all known regional varieties, potentially thousands of genetic modifications. Class I and Antibody responses are downstream of Class II recognition and are of little remedial value in change. The innate response peptide could be a silver bullet, assuming there is only one of these per protein and only a few genome loci with the protein. The bigger question is why late onset gluten sensitivity rapidly rising, is this truly a wheat problem or is it something that being done to wheat, or to those who are eating wheat (for example communicable diseases as trigger)? Some individuals are susceptible by genetics (early onset), but many late onset cases could have variable triggers because there is nothing genetically that separates the 30 to 40% of people that could have Triticeae sensitivity from the ~1% that, in their lifetime, will have some level of this disease. Another strategy in making wheat less immunogenic is to insert proteolytic sites in the longer motifs (25-mer and 33-mer) facilitating more complete digestion.

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