Geonim

Geonim (Hebrew: גאונים‎; also transliterated Gaonim) were the presidents of the two great Babylonian, Talmudic Academies of Sura and Pumbedita, in the Abbasid Caliphate, and were the generally accepted spiritual leaders of the Jewish community world wide in the early medieval era, in contrast to the Resh Galuta (Exilarch) who wielded secular authority over the Jews in Islamic lands.

Geonim is the plural of גאון (Gaon'), which means "pride" or "splendour" in Biblical Hebrew and since the 19th century "genius" as in modern Hebrew. As a title of a Babylonian college president it meant something like "His Excellency."

The Geonim played a prominent and decisive role in the transmission and teaching of Torah and Jewish law. They taught Talmud and decided on issues on which no ruling had been rendered during the period of the Talmud.

Read more about Geonim:  Era, Role in Jewish Life, The Title "Gaon", Yarchei Kallah, Individual Geonim

Other articles related to "geonim":

Masseket Azilut - Dating
... Eras Chazal Zugot Tannaim Amoraim Savoraim Geonim Rishonim Acharonim The form in which the rudiments of the Kabala are presented here, as well as the emphasis laid on ... the whole the same as that found in the mystical writings of the time of the Geonim, with which the work has much in common hence, according to the Jewish ... are identical with those of the Geonim, and the idea of the Sefirot is presented so simply and unphilosophically that one is hardly justified in assuming ...
History Of Responsa - Geonim - Later Geonim
... More discursive were the responsa of the later geonim after the first half of the ninth century, when questions began to be sent from more distant ... The later geonim did not restrict themselves to the Mishnah and Talmud, but used the decisions and responsa of their predecessors, whose sayings and ... These responsa of the later geonim were often essays on Talmudic themes, and since a single letter often answered many questions, it frequently became book-length in size ...
Individual Geonim
... though not holders of the office of Gaon, are often ranked among the Geonim ... Maimonides sometimes uses the term "Geonim" in an extended sense, to mean "leading authorities", regardless of what country they lived in ...
Sephardic Law And Customs - Law - The Geonic Period
... Their presidents, known as Geonim, together with the Exilarch, were recognised by the Abbasid Caliphs as the supreme authority over the Jews of the Arab world ... The Geonim provided written answers to questions on Jewish law from round the world, which were published in collections of Responsa and enjoyed high authority ... The Geonim also produced handbooks such as the Halachot Pesuqot by Yehudai Gaon and the Halachot Gedolot by Simeon Kayyara ...