### Some articles on *gauge, gauge theories, theories*:

Regauging - History and Importance

... The earliest field theory having a

... The earliest field theory having a

**gauge**symmetry was Maxwell's formulation of electrodynamics in 1864 ... invariance under the change of scale (or "**gauge**") might also be a local symmetry of general relativity ... the development of quantum mechanics, Weyl, Vladimir Fock and Fritz London modified**gauge**by replacing the scale factor with a complex quantity and turned the scale transformation into a change of phase ...Sakurai Prize - Prize Recipients

... of the properties of spontaneous symmetry breaking in four-dimensional relativistic

... of the properties of spontaneous symmetry breaking in four-dimensional relativistic

**gauge**theory and of the mechanism for the consistent generation of vector boson masses." See also 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers ... QCD, non-leptonic weak decays, and the analytic properties of supersymmetric**gauge theories**" 1998 Leonard Susskind "For his pioneering contributions ... Gribov "For his early pioneering work on the high energy behavior of quantum field**theories**and his elucidating studies of the global structure of non-abelian**gauge theories**" 1990 Toichiro Kinoshita "For ...D-brane -

... In most

**Gauge Theories**... In most

**theories**, strings are oriented objects each one carries an "arrow" defining a direction along its length.) The open strings permissible in this situation then fall into two categories, or "sectors" those ... Because string**theories**are by nature relativistic, adding energy to a string is equivalent to adding mass, by Einstein's relation E = mc2 ... The quantum version of Maxwell's electromagnetism is only one kind of**gauge**theory, a U(1)**gauge**theory where the**gauge**group is made of unitary ...Regauging - Quantization of

...

**Gauge Theories**...

**Gauge theories**may be quantized by specialization of methods which are applicable to any quantum field theory ... However, because of the subtleties imposed by the**gauge**constraints (see section on Mathematical formalism, above) there are many technical problems to be solved which do not ... At the same time, the richer structure of**gauge theories**allow simplification of some computations for example Ward identities connect different renormalization ...Regauging - Quantization of

... The first

**Gauge Theories**- Methods and Aims... The first

**gauge**theory to be quantized was quantum electrodynamics (QED) ... The first methods developed for this involved**gauge**fixing and then applying canonical quantization ... Non-abelian**gauge theories**are now handled by a variety of means ...### Famous quotes containing the word theories:

“It takes twenty or so years before a mother can know with any certainty how effective her *theories* have been—and even then there are surprises. The daily newspapers raise the most frightening questions of all for a mother of sons: Could my once sweet babes ever become violent men? Are my sons really who I think they are?”

—Mary Kay Blakely (20th century)

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