In 1996 gasoline direct injection reappeared in the automotive market. Mitsubishi was the first with a GDI engine in the Japanese market with its Galant/Legnum's 4G93 1.8 L inline-four. It was subsequently brought to Europe in 1997 in the Carisma, although Europe's then high-sulfur unleaded fuel led to emissions problems and fuel efficiency was less than expected. It also developed the first six-cylinder GDI powerplant, the 6G74 3.5 L V6, in 1997. Mitsubishi applied this technology widely, producing over one million GDI engines in four families by 2001. Although other companies have since developed gasoline direct injection engines, the acronym 'GDI' (with an uppercase final "I") remains a registered trademark of Mitsubishi Motors.
In 1998, Toyota's D4 direct injection system first appeared on various Japanese market vehicles equipped with the SZ and NZ engines. Toyota later introduced its D4 system to European markets with the 1AZ-FSE engine found in the 2001 Avensis. and US markets in 2005 with the 3GR-FSE engine found in the Lexus GS 300. Toyota's 2GR-FSE V6 uses a more advanced direct injection system, which combines both direct and indirect injection using two fuel injectors per cylinder, a traditional port fuel injector (low pressure) and a direct fuel injector (high-pressure) in a system known as D4-S.
In 1999, Renault introduced the 2.0 IDE (Injection Directe Essence), first on the Megane. Rather than following the lean burn approach, Renault's design uses high ratios of exhaust gas recirculation to improve economy at low engine loads, with direct injection allowing the fuel to be concentrated around the spark. Later gasoline direct injection engines have been tuned and marketed for their high performance as well as increased fuel efficiency. PSA Peugeot Citroën, Hyundai and Volvo licensed Mitsubishi's GDI technology in 1999.
In 2000, the Volkswagen Group introduced its gasoline direct injection engine in the Volkswagen Lupo, a 1.4 L inline-four unit, under the product name "Fuel Stratified Injection" (FSI) and "Turbo Fuel Stratified Injection" (TFSI). The technology was adapted from Audi's Le Mans prototype race car R8. Volkswagen Group marques use direct injection in its turbocharged 2.0 L TFSI and naturally aspirated 2.0 L FSI four-cylinder engines. Later, a 2.0 L inline-four unit was introduced in the model year 2003 Audi A4. PSA Peugeot Citroën introduced its first GDi (HPi) engine in 2000 in the Citroën C5 and Peugeot 406. It was a 2.0-liter 16-valve EW10 D unit with 140 hp (104 kW), the system was licensed from Mitsubishi.
In 2002, the Alfa Romeo 156 with a direct-injection engine, the JTS (Jet Thrust Stoichiometric) went on sale and today the technology is used on almost every Alfa Romeo engine.
In 2003, Ford debuted a 1.8 L Duratec SCi naturally aspirated engine for the Ford Mondeo. Ford introduced its first European Ford engine to use direct injection technology in 2001, badged SCi (Smart Charge injection) for Direct-Injection-Spark-Ignition (DISI). The range will include some turbocharged derivatives, including the 1.1 L, three-cylinder turbocharged unit showcased at the 2002 Geneva Show.
In 2003, BMW introduced a low-pressure gasoline direct injection N73 V12. This initial BMW setup could not enter lean-burn mode, but the company introduced its second-generation High Precision Injection (HPI) system on the new turbocharged N54 straight-6 in 2006, which used high-pressure injectors. This system surpasses many others with a wider envelope of lean-burn time, increasing overall efficiency. PSA is cooperating with BMW on a new line of engines that made its first appearance in the 2007 MINI Cooper S. Honda released their own direct injection system on the Stream sold in Japan. Honda's fuel injector is placed directly atop the cylinder at a 90-degree angle rather than a slanted angle.
In 2003, General Motors released a 155 hp (116 kW) version of the 2.2 L Ecotec for the Opel/Vauxhall Vectra and Signum. Several direct injected versions of the Ecotec engine have been introduced, using the SIDI (Spark Ignition Direct Injection) moniker: in 2006, a 2.0 L turbocharged Ecotec LNF using a Gen II block for the Pontiac Solstice GXP and the Saturn Sky Red Line; in 2010, a Gen II block 2.4 L Ecotec LAF; and in 2012, a 2.5 L Ecotec LCV and 2.0 L turbocharged Ecotec LTG in a Gen III block.
In 2004 Isuzu produced the first GDi engine sold in a mainstream American vehicle, standard on the 2004 Axiom and optional on the 2004 Rodeo. Isuzu claimed the benefit of GDi is that the vaporizing fuel has a cooling effect, allowing a higher compression ratio (10.3:1 versus 9.1:1) that boosts output by 20 hp (15 kW), and that 0-to-60 mph times drop from 8.9 to just 7.5 seconds, with the quarter-mile being cut from 16.5 to 15.8 seconds.
In 2005, Mazda began to use their own version of direct-injection in the Mazdaspeed6 and later on the CX-7 sport-utility, and the new Mazdaspeed3 in the US and European market. It is referred to as Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI).
In 2006, BMW released the new N54 twin-turbo-charged direct injection inline-six engine for its 335i Coupe and later for the 335i Sedan, 535i series and the 135i models. Mercedes-Benz released its direct injection system (Charged Gasoline Injection, or "CGI") on the CLS 350 CGI featuring common rail, piezo-electric direct fuel injectors. The CLS 350 CGI offers 292 BHP versus 272 BHP for the CLS 350, with reduced carbon dioxide emissions and improved fuel economy. Audi also released its V8 engine with FSI technology in Audi R8 that can produce 424 BHP with low carbon emission and more fuel economy.
In 2007, GM released the 3.6 L V6 LLT SIDI for the redesigned Cadillac CTS and STS and the Holden Commodore SV6. The 3.6 L has been used in the 2010 Chevy Camaro, a first for this model. In 2010, the 3.0 L LF1 SIDI was introduced.
In 2007, Ford introduced its new Ford EcoBoost engine technology designed for a range of global vehicles (from small cars to large trucks). The engine first appeared in the 2007 Lincoln MKR Concept under the name TwinForce. The new global EcoBoost family of 4-cylinder and 6-cylinder engines features turbocharging and direct injection technology (GTDI - Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection). A 2.0 L version was unveiled in the 2008 Ford Explorer America Concept.
In 2008, BMW released the X6 xDrive50i equipped with a direct injected twin turbo N63 V8 engine.
In 2009, Ferrari began selling the front-engine California with a direct injection system, and announced that its new 458 Italia car will also feature a direct injection system, a first for Ferrari mid-rear engine setups. Porsche also began selling the 997 and Cayman equipped with direct injection. Ford produced the new generation Taurus SHO and Flex with a 3.5 L twin-turbo EcoBoost V-6 with direct injection. The Infiniti Essence concept car is powered by a direct injected twin turbo V6. The Jaguar Land Rover AJ-V8 Gen III 5.0 L engine (introduced in August 2009 for the 2010 model year) features spray-guided direct injection.
In 2010 Infiniti will produce the M56 which includes DI. Motus Motorcycles is developing, with Katech Engines, a direct-injected V4 engine named the KMV4 as the powertrain for their MST motorcycles. The Hyundai Sonata 2011 model will come with GDI engines, including a turbo charged 2.0-litre that produces 274 hp. Hyundai's Theta I-4 engine family is a proprietary design, engineered in Namyang, Korea and currently in production for applications all over the world.
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Famous quotes containing the word systems:
“What avails it that you are a Christian, if you are not purer than the heathen, if you deny yourself no more, if you are not more religious? I know of many systems of religion esteemed heathenish whose precepts fill the reader with shame, and provoke him to new endeavors, though it be to the performance of rites merely.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)
“In all systems of theology the devil figures as a male person.... Yes, it is women who keep the church going.”
—Don Marquis (18781937)