Foramina of Skull - List of Foramina and The Structures That Pass Through Them

List of Foramina and The Structures That Pass Through Them

Bone Cranial fossa Foramina Vessels Nerves
frontal - supraorbital foramen supraorbital artery, supraorbital vein supraorbital nerve
frontal anterior cranial fossa foramen cecum emissary veins to superior sagittal sinus -
ethmoid - foramina of cribriform plate - olfactory nerve bundles (I)
ethmoid anterior cranial fossa anterior ethmoidal foramen anterior ethmoidal artery
anterior ethmoidal vein
anterior ethmoidal nerve
ethmoid anterior cranial fossa posterior ethmoidal foramen posterior ethmoidal artery
posterior ethmoidal vein
posterior ethmoidal nerve
sphenoid - optic canal ophthalmic artery optic nerve (II)
sphenoid middle cranial fossa superior orbital fissure superior ophthalmic vein oculomotor nerve (III)
trochlear nerve (IV)
lacrimal, frontal and nasociliary branches of ophthalmic nerve (V1)
abducent nerve (VI)
sphenoid middle cranial fossa foramen rotundum - maxillary nerve (V2)
maxilla - incisive foramen/incisive canals sphenopalatine artery nasopalatine nerve(V2)
palatine - greater palatine foramen greater palatine artery
greater palatine vein
greater palatine nerve
palatine and maxilla - lesser palatine foramina lesser palatine artery
lesser palatine vein
lesser palatine nerve
sphenoid and maxilla - inferior orbital fissure inferior ophthalmic veins
infraorbital artery
infraorbital vein
zygomatic nerve and infraorbital nerve of maxillary nerve (V2)
orbital branches of pterygopalatine ganglion
maxilla - infraorbital foramen infraorbital artery
infraorbital vein
infraorbital nerve
sphenoid middle cranial fossa foramen ovale accessory meningeal artery mandibular nerve (V3)
lesser petrosal nerve (occasionally)
sphenoid middle cranial fossa foramen spinosum middle meningeal artery meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve (V3)
sphenoid middle cranial fossa foramen lacerum internal carotid artery, artery of pterygoid canal nerve of pterygoid canal
temporal posterior cranial fossa internal acoustic meatus labyrinthine artery facial nerve (VII), vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
temporal posterior cranial fossa jugular foramen internal jugular vein, inferior petrosal sinus, sigmoid sinus glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI)
occipital posterior cranial fossa hypoglossal canal - hypoglossal nerve (XII)
occipital posterior cranial fossa foramen magnum anterior and posterior spinal arteries, vertebral arteries medulla oblongata
temporal posterior cranial fossa stylomastoid foramen stylomastoid artery facial nerve
Bones of head and neck: Foramina of the skull (and canals, fissures, meati, and hiati) (TA A02.1.00.053–097, GA 2.178–199)
Anterior cranial fossa to Orbit: ethmoidal foramina (anterior, posterior)
to Nasal cavity: olfactory foramina (CN-I) · foramen cecum
Middle cranial fossa

to Orbit: optic canal (CN-II) · superior orbital fissure (CN-III,IV,V1,VI)

to Pterygopalatine fossa: foramen rotundum (CN-V2) · pterygoid canal

to Infratemporal fossa: foramen ovale (CN-V3) · foramen spinosum/carotid canal

other: foramen lacerum · hiatus for greater petrosal nerve · hiatus for lesser petrosal nerve · sphenoidal emissary foramen
Posterior cranial fossa internal auditory meatus/facial canal/stylomastoid foramen (CN-VII,VIII) · jugular foramen (CN-IX,X,XI) · foramen magnum (CN-XI) · hypoglossal canal (CN-XII) · condylar canal · mastoid foramen

to Nasal cavity: nasolacrimal canal

to Face: supraorbital (notch, foramen) · infraorbital (foramen, groove) · zygomatic foramen (-facial, -temporal)

to Pterygopalatine fossa: inferior orbital fissure

other: Inferior orbital fissure · Fossa for lacrimal sac
Pterygopalatine fossa

to Nasal cavity: sphenopalatine foramen

to Oral cavity: greater palatine canal/greater palatine foramen · lesser palatine canals/lesser palatine foramina

to Infratemporal fossa: pterygomaxillary fissure

to Nasopharynx: palatovaginal canal

to Oral cavity: incisive canals · incisive foramen

to Nasal cavity: Foramen vomerinum · Meatus vomerinus · Fissura vomerina · Hiatus vomerinus
Other external acoustic meatus · mandibular foramen · mental foramen · parietal foramen · petrotympanic fissure · semilunar hiatus


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