A circuit diagram for a practical implementation is illustrated, Fig 1b and the associated waveforms Fig. 1c. A scrap view of an alternative front end is shown in Fig. 1b which has the advantage that the voltage at the switch terminals are relatively constant and close to 0.0 V. Also the current generated through R by −Vref is constant at −Vref/R so that much less noise is radiated to adjacent parts of the circuit. Then this would be the preferred front end in practice but, in order to show the impulse as a voltage pulse so as to be consistent with previous discussion, the front end given here, which is an electrical equivalent, is used.
From the top of Fig 1c the waveforms, labelled as they are on the circuit diagram, are:-
(a) Vin. This is shown as varying from 0.4 V initially to 1.0 V and then to zero volts to show the effect on the feedback loop.
(b) The impulse waveform. It will be discovered how this acquires its form as we traverse the feedback loop.
(c) The current into the capacitor, Ic, is the linear sum of the impulse voltage upon R and Vin upon R. To show this sum as a voltage the product R × Ic is plotted. The input impedance of the amplifier is regarded as so high that the current drawn by the input is neglected.
(d) The negated integral of Ic. This negation is standard for the op. amp. implementation of an integrator and comes about because the current into the capacitor at the amplifier input is the current out of the capacitor at the amplifier output and the voltage is the integral of the current divided by the capacitance of C.
(e) The comparator output. The comparator is a very high gain amplifier with its plus input terminal connected for reference to 0.0 V. Whenever the negative input terminal is taken negative with respect the positive terminal of the amplifier the output saturates positive and conversely negative saturation for positive input. Thus the output saturates positive whenever the integral (d) goes below the 0 V reference level and remains there until (d) goes positive with respect to the reference level.
(f) The impulse timer is a D type positive edge triggered flip flop. Input information applied at D is transferred to Q on the occurrence of the positive edge of the clock pulse. thus when the comparator output (e) is positive Q goes positive or remains positive at the next positive clock edge. Similarly, when (e) is negative Q goes negative at the next positive clock edge. Q controls the electronic switch to generate the current impulse into the integrator. Examination of the waveform (e) during the initial period illustrated, when Vin is 0.4 V, shows (e) crossing the threshold well before the trigger edge (positive edge of the clock pulse) so that there is an appreciable delay before the impulse starts. After the start of the impulse there is further delay while (e) climbs back past the threshold. During this time the comparator output remains high but goes low before the next trigger edge. At that next trigger edge the impulse timer goes low to follow the comparator. Thus the clock determines the duration of the impulse. For the next impulse the threshold is crossed immediately before the trigger edge and so the comparator is only briefly positive. Vin (a) goes to full scale, +Vref, shortly before the end of the next impulse. For the remainder of that impulse the capacitor current (c) goes to zero and hence the integrator slope briefly goes to zero. Following this impulse the full scale positive current is flowing (c) and the integrator sinks at its maximum rate and so crosses the threshold well before the next trigger edge. At that edge the impulse starts and the Vin current is now matched by the reference current so that the net capacitor current (c) is zero. Then the integration now has zero slope and remains at the negative value it had at the start of the impulse. This has the effect that the impulse current remains switched on because Q is stuck positive because the comparator is stuck positive at every trigger edge. This is consistent with contiguous, butting impulses which is required at full scale input.
Eventually Vin (a) goes to zero which means that the current sum (c) goes fully negative and the integral ramps up. It shortly thereafter crosses the threshold and this in turn is followed by Q, thus switching the impulse current off. The capacitor current (c) is now zero and so the integral slope is zero, remaining constant at the value it had acquired at the end of the impulse.
(g) The countstream is generated by gating the negated clock with Q to produce this waveform. Thereafter the summing interval, sigma count and buffered count are produced using appropriate counters and registers. The Vin waveform is approximated by passing the countstream (g) into a low pass filter, however it suffers from the defect discussed in the context of Fig. 1a. One possibility for reducing this error is to halve the feedback pulse length to half a clock period and double its amplitude by halving the impulse defining resistor thus producing an impulse of the same strength but one which never butts onto its adjacent impulses. Then there will be a threshold crossing for every impulse. In this arrangement a monostable flip flop triggered by the comparator at the threshold crossing will closely follow the threshold crossings and thus eliminate one source of error, both in the ADC and the sigma delta modulator.
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