The deliming process can be done with acids that can be rapid in their pH adjustment. Buffering salts like ammonium salts predominated the 20th century. Ammonium sulfate and ammonium chloride can be used as deliming agents and they follow the following chemistry:
- (NH4)SO4 → NH4+ (ammonium) + SO42- (sulfate)
The ammonium ion is then free to penetrate the pelt cross-section and further ionise to act as an acid:
- NH4+ (ammonium) + H2O → NH3 (ammonia) + H3O+ (hydronium)
The protons can then serve two functions, namely to protonate basic groups of the collagen and neutralize solution alkali chemicals.
Other weak acids can be used such as boric acid. acetic, formic, lactic acid, Phosphoric Acid and carbonic acid. Carbonic acid is used in a deliming process called carbon dioxide deliming. Strong acids such as hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid can also be used but their use is limited.
Read more about this topic: Deliming
Famous quotes containing the word types:
“Our children evaluate themselves based on the opinions we have of them. When we use harsh words, biting comments, and a sarcastic tone of voice, we plant the seeds of self-doubt in their developing minds.... Children who receive a steady diet of these types of messages end up feeling powerless, inadequate, and unimportant. They start to believe that they are bad, and that they can never do enough.”
—Stephanie Martson (20th century)