# Counter Machine Reference Model - Reference Library (RefLib) - Counter Machine Instructions

Counter Machine Instructions

The various Counter machine instruction sets are like "ultra-RISC instruction sets". And, as is the case for different RISC machine builders, even for very similar machines, different authors have used different instruction sets. The "basic instructions" are used map these differences on the relevant Counter machine variant models.

J (i)

`JZ (r0,i)`

Go to i (unconditional jump); register #0 must contain 0.
JZ(rX, i1,i2)
1. JZ (rX,i1)
2. JZ (r0,i2)
IF rX=0 THEN i1 ELSE i2
DECJZ(r,i)
1. JZ (r,*i)
2. DEC(r)
Test r=0; if r = 0 then DEC
INCJ(r,i)
1. INC(r)
2. J (i)
INC and J.
CLR(r)
1. JZ (r,*+3)
2. DEC(r)
3. J (*-2)
If r=0 goto *+3; if not then DEC and goto *-2
MOV(rX,rY) 1 CLR(rY) 2 JZ (rX,*+4) 3 INC(rY) 4 DEC(rX) 5 J (*-4) 6 CONTINUE Move rX to rY, clearing contents of rX.
CPY(rX,rY) 1 CLR(rY) 9 JZ (rW,13) 2 CLR(rW) 10 INC(rX) 3 JZ (rX,8) 11 DEC(rW) 4 INC(rY) 12 J (9) 5 INC(rW) 13 CONTINUE 6 DEC(rX) 7 J (3) 8 ?? Copy rX into rY, rW must be free (at end rW=0).
CPY (k,r)
1. CLR (r)
2. ( INC (r) )k
Immediate (explicit) copy constant k from instructions into R: Clear R and ( INC(r) )1 ,..., ( INC(r) )k i.e. do k times. Alternatively: put constant in register #K: CPY (K, r1)
CMP(rX,rY,r) 1 CPY(rX,r) 6 JZ(r0,3) 2 CPY(rY,rW) 7 JZ(rW,9) 3 JZ(r,7) 8 INC(r) 4 DEC(r) 9 CONTINUE 5 DEC(rW) Compare rX with rY and returns on r (r=0 if rX equal rY).
ADD(rX,rX,r) ... in terms of JZ, DEC, J, CLR, INC, CPY. r=rX+rY; perhaps preserving the contents of rX and rY.
MUL(rX,rY,r) ... in terms of JZ, DEC, J, CLR, INC, CPY, ADD. MULtiply, r=rX*rY; perhaps preserving the contents of rX and rY.
SUB(rX,rY,r) ... in terms of ... SUBtract, r=rX-rY; perhaps preserving the contents of rX and rY.

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