**Positive Value**

Observations announced in 1998 of distance–redshift relation for Type Ia supernovae indicated that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. When combined with measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation these implied a value of, a result which has been supported and refined by more recent measurements. There are other possible causes of an accelerating universe, such as quintessence, but the cosmological constant is in most respects the simplest solution. Thus, the current standard model of cosmology, the Lambda-CDM model, includes the cosmological constant, which is measured to be on the order of 10−52 m−2, in metric units. Multiplied by other constants that appear in the equations, it is often expressed as 10−35 s−2, 10−47 GeV4, 10−29 g/cm3. In terms of Planck units, and as a natural dimensionless value, the cosmological constant, λ, is on the order of 10−122.

As was only recently seen, by works of 't Hooft, Susskind and others, a positive cosmological constant has surprising consequences, such as a finite maximum entropy of the observable universe (see the holographic principle).

A problem arises with inclusion of the cosmological constant in the standard model: i.e., the appearance of solutions with regions of discontinuities (see *classification of discontinuities* at typical matter density). Discontinuity also affects the past sign of the pressure of the cosmological constant, changing from the current negative pressure to attractive, with lookback towards the early Universe. Another investigation found the cosmological time, *dt*, diverges for any finite interval, *ds*, associated with an observer approaching the cosmological horizon, representing a physical limit to observation for the standard model when the cosmological term is included. This is a key requirement for a complete interpretation of astronomical observations, particularly pertaining to the nature of dark energy and the cosmological constant. All of these findings should be considered major shortcomings of the standard model, but only when the cosmological constant term is included.

Read more about this topic: Cosmological Constant

### Famous quotes containing the word positive:

“Men just don’t “get” that the reason to become involved is for ourselves. Doing more with our children won’t simply make women happier or keep them “off our backs,” but will create a deeper, more *positive* connection with the kids.”

—Ron Taffel (20th century)

“I am *positive* I have a soul; nor can all the books with which materialists have pester’d the world ever convince me of the contrary.”

—Laurence Sterne (1713–1768)