Container Formats - Multimedia Container Formats

Multimedia Container Formats

See also: Comparison of container formats

The container file is used to identify and interleave different data types. Simpler container formats can contain different types of audio formats, while more advanced container formats can support multiple audio and video streams, subtitles, chapter-information, and meta-data (tags) — along with the synchronization information needed to play back the various streams together. In most cases, the file header, most of the metadata and the synchro chunks are specified by the container format. For example, container formats exist for optimized, low-quality, internet video streaming which differs from high-quality DVD streaming requirements.

Container format parts have various names: "chunks" as in RIFF and PNG, "atoms" in QuickTime/MP4, "packets" in MPEG-TS (from the communications term), and "segments" in JPEG. The main content of a chunk is called the "data" or "payload". Most container formats have chunks in sequence, each with a header, while TIFF instead stores offsets. Modular chunks make it easy to recover other chunks in case of file corruption or dropped frames or bit slip, while offsets result in framing errors in cases of bit slip.

Some containers are exclusive to audio:

  • AIFF (IFF file format, widely used on Mac OS platform)
  • WAV (RIFF file format, widely used on Windows platform)
  • XMF (Extensible Music Format)

Other containers are exclusive to still images:

  • FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) still images, raw data, and associated metadata.
  • TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) still images and associated metadata.

Other flexible containers can hold many types of audio and video, as well as other media. The most popular multi-media containers are:

  • 3GP (used by many mobile phones; based on the ISO base media file format)
  • ASF (container for Microsoft WMA and WMV, which today usually do not use a container)
  • AVI (the standard Microsoft Windows container, also based on RIFF)
  • DVR-MS ("Microsoft Digital Video Recording", proprietary video container format developed by Microsoft based on ASF)
  • Flash Video (FLV, F4V) (container for video and audio from Adobe Systems)
  • IFF (first platform-independent container format)
  • Matroska (MKV) (not limited to any codec or system, as it can hold virtually anything. It is an open standard and open source container format).
  • MJ2 - Motion JPEG 2000 file format, based on the ISO base media file format which is defined in MPEG-4 Part 12 and JPEG 2000 Part 12
  • QuickTime File Format (standard QuickTime video container from Apple Inc.)
  • MPEG program stream (standard container for MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 elementary streams on reasonably reliable media such as disks; used also on DVD-Video discs)
  • MPEG-2 transport stream (a.k.a. MPEG-TS) (standard container for digital broadcasting and for transportation over unreliable media; used also on Blu-ray Disc video; typically contains multiple video and audio streams, and an electronic program guide)
  • MP4 (standard audio and video container for the MPEG-4 multimedia portfolio, based on the ISO base media file format defined in MPEG-4 Part 12 and JPEG 2000 Part 12) which in turn was based on the QuickTime file format.
  • Ogg (standard container for audio format Vorbis and video format Theora)
  • RM (RealMedia; standard container for RealVideo and RealAudio)

There are many other container formats, such as NUT, MXF, GXF, ratDVD, SVI, VOB and DivX Media Format

Read more about this topic:  Container Formats

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