Historical Uncertainty of Coronation
The primary source for the elevation of Constantine Laskaris is Niketas Choniatēs an eyewitness who recounted the fall of Constantinople to the Crusaders. However, given Constantine's apparent subordinate role under his brother Theodore in 1205, historians such as Sir Steven Runciman and Donald Queller have argued that it was in fact Theodore and not Constantine who was in Hagia Sophia that fateful day, and it was Theodore who was nominated and thus succeeded Alexius V.
This uncertainty, plus the fact that Constantine remained uncrowned means that he is not always counted among Byzantine Emperors. Therefore the convention when it comes to Constantine Laskaris is that he is not usually assigned a numeral. If he is counted as Constantine XI, Constantine XI Palaeologus, the last Emperor, is counted as Constantine XII.
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