Common vampire bats display a high amount of cooperative behavior. Females in a harem have strong social bonds between themselves that are reinforced through interactions in the roost. A harem male has moderately strong relationships with his females. In harems with multiple males, the males may have mutual bonds but they are not as strong as those of the females. While the harem male's relationship with outside bachelors males is mostly antagonistic, they are allowed into the harems during low ambient temperatures—possibly a form of social thermoregulation. Bats display reciprocal altruism by sharing food: when a bat is unsuccessful in feeding it solicits food from a roost-mate who regurgitates blood to feed its neighbor. This behavior likely evolved to combat starvation, as a bat cannot survive more than three nights without feeding. The females share blood with one another, the harem male shares blood with his females, and harem males may also share food with each other.
Female vampire bats display alloparenting. Lactating females in roosts will feed both young whose mothers have died, and those whose mothers are still alive. This mechanism evolved to keep the young from starving and to ease the burden of raising offspring. Vampire bats also participate in mutual grooming: two bats groom each other simultaneously to clean one another, and to strengthen social bonds. Bats that groom one another also share food. While grooming, a bat can assess the size of its partner’s abdomen to determine if it really needs to eat. Grooming is also dependent on kinship and relatedness. Mothers groom their offspring more than other bats, which may promote mutual recognition.
Other articles related to "cooperation":
... Application of farming safeguard measures Technical cooperation and assistance programs Effective enforcement of environmental legislation Sovereignty to adopt and modify ...
... In the European Union (EU), enhanced cooperation is a procedure where a minimum of nine EU member states are allowed to establish advanced integration or cooperation in an area within EU structures but without ... This is distinct from the EU opt-out, that is a form of cooperation between EU members within EU structures, where it is allowed for a limited number ... It is further distinct from Mechanism for Cooperation and Verification and permanent acquis suspensions, whose lifting is conditional on meeting certain benchmarks by the ...
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... Agreement on Cultural, Educational, and Scientific Cooperation (1999) ... Memorandum of bilateral Economic cooperation (1999) ... Cooperation agreement in respect of Tourism (1999) ...
Famous quotes containing the word cooperation:
“There is, I think, no point in the philosophy of progressive education which is sounder than its emphasis upon the importance of the participation of the learner in the formation of the purposes which direct his activities in the learning process, just as there is no defect in traditional education greater than its failure to secure the active cooperation of the pupil in construction of the purposes involved in his studying.”
—John Dewey (18591952)
“Psychoanalysis is an attempt to examine a persons self-justifications. Hence it can be undertaken only with the patients cooperation and can succeed only when the patient has something to gain by abandoning or modifying his system of self-justification.”
—Thomas Szasz (b. 1920)
“We should have an army so organized and so officered as to be capable in time of emergency, in cooperation with the National Militia, and under the provision of a proper national volunteer law, rapidly to expand into a force sufficient to resist all probable invasion from abroad and to furnish a respectable expeditionary force if necessary in the maintenance of our traditional American policy which bears the name of President Monroe.”
—William Howard Taft (18571930)