Coltrane Changes

In jazz harmony, the Coltrane changes (Coltrane Matrix or cycle, also known as chromatic third relations and multi-tonic changes) are a harmonic progression variation using substitute chords over common jazz chord progressions. These substitution patterns were first demonstrated by jazz musician John Coltrane on the albums Bags & Trane (on the track "Three Little Words") and Cannonball Adderley Quintet in Chicago (on "Limehouse Blues"). Coltrane continued his explorations on the 1960 album Giant Steps, and expanded upon the substitution cycle in his compositions "Giant Steps" and "Countdown", the latter of which is a reharmonized version of Miles Davis's "Tune Up." The Coltrane changes are a standard advanced harmonic substitution used in jazz improvisation.

The changes serve as a pattern of chord substitutions for the ii-V-I progression (supertonic-dominant-tonic) Play and are noted for the tonally unusual root movement down by major thirds (as opposed to the usual minor or major seconds, see steps and skips, thus the "giant steps"), creating an augmented triad.

Read more about Coltrane Changes:  Influences, Coltrane Substitution, The Major Thirds Cycle, "Tune Up" and "Countdown", "Giant Steps", Sample, The Standard Substitution

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... most famous examples, both of these compositions use slight variants of the standard Coltrane changes (The first eight bars of "Giant Steps" uses a shortened version ... The standard substitution can be found in several Coltrane compositions and arrangements all recorded around this time ... based on the harmonic form of "I Can't Get Started"), Coltrane's arrangement of the standard "But Not for Me," and on the bridge of his arrangement of the famous ballad "Body and Soul." In addition ...