Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus

Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus (Paris, National Library of France, Greek 9; Gregory-Aland no. C or 04, von Soden δ 3) is an early 5th century Greek manuscript of the Bible, the last in the group of the four great uncial manuscripts (see Codex Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus and Vaticanus). The manuscript has not survived in a complete condition, although is believed that the original codex contained the whole Bible.

The manuscript received its name as a codex in which Greek translations of Ephraem the Syrian's treatises were written over ("rescriptus") a former text that had been washed off its vellum pages, thus forming a palimpsest. The later text was produced in the 12th century. The effacement of the original text was incomplete, for beneath the text of Ephraem are the remains of what was once a complete Bible, containing both the Old Testament and the New. It forms one of the codices for textual criticism on which the Higher criticism is based.

The lower text of the palimpsest was deciphered by biblical scholar and palaeographer Tischendorf in 1840–1843, and was edited by him in 1843–1845. Currently it is housed in the Bibliothèque nationale de France (Grec 9) in Paris.

Read more about Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus:  Description, History

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Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus - History
... He revised readings of the codex to ecclesiastical use, inserting many accents, breathings, and vocal notes ... in the margin, and worked extensively on the codex ... After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, the codex was brought to Florence by an émigré scholar ...